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海水及苦咸水淡化市场研究报告 (2016版)
Seawater and Brackish Water Desalination (Version 2016)

海水及苦咸水淡化市场研究报告 (2016版)
【报告编号】:No.25319
【发布时间】:2016-03
【关 键 字】:seawater and brackish water desalination   海水及苦咸水淡化   
【报告页数】:184页
【报告价格】:电子版:6650美元
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DESCRIPTION
 
REPORT HIGHLIGHTS
 
The global cumulative investments in desalination plants reached roughly $21.4 billion in 2015 and should reach nearly $48.2 billion by 2020, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 17.6%.
 
This report provides:
An overview of the global market for seawater and brackish water desalination
Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2014, estimates for 2015, and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through 2020
Descriptions of various desalination methods, including multistage flash distillation, multi-effect distillation, vapor compression, reverse osmosis, and nanofiltration
Discussion of novel desalination methods, including freezing, gas hydrate formation, membrane distillation, and capacitive deionization
Examination of the seawater and brackish water desalination plants industry on a worldwide basis, both from a market and application perspective
Profiles of major and minor companies working on or in conjunction with desalination plants.
 
SCOPE OF REPORT
Desalination plants range from the very small to large industrial or municipal facilities. This report assesses the market for the larger facilities-those with a daily capacity of 1,000 or more cubic meters of produced water. The study discusses the global water resource status and the growing gap between freshwater resources and water demand from all sectors. Within this global context, the specific growth drivers for and the challenges to the evolution of the desalination equipment market are presented.
 
A technical overview of the primary desalination technologies is provided, as well as an overview of novel distillation methods. The report presents the hypothetical unit cost of water as produced by the primary technologies as well as the sensitivity of that cost to variations in economic parameters.
 
Forecasts of annual and cumulative capital investments in desalination plants likely to begin operation during the forecast period of 2015 to 2020 are given. These forecasts include global investments by technology and by region, as well as regional forecasts by technology. Outlooks are provided for important countries within each of the regions examined in the report: North America; Latin America and the Caribbean; Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa; Asia and Oceania; and Africa/Rest of World. The outlook sections include information on key projects.
 
The desalination industry structure, key players, and their market shares are also discussed. Seventy-seven companies are profiled. In addition, a survey of relevant patents for 2013, 2014 and 2015 (through October 2015) is provided.
 
ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS
The author of this report, Gerry Runte, holds B.S. and M.Eng. degrees in mathematics, chemistry, and nuclear engineering. He has more than 30 years of experience in leadership, strategy development, and corporate planning. Currently, he heads Worthington Sawtelle LLC, a consulting and market research firm that provides a full portfolio of business planning and strategy services to both new and existing participants in emerging markets.
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY
INTENDED AUDIENCE
SCOPE OF REPORT
METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES
ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE
DISCLAIMER
 
CHAPTER 2 - SUMMARY
SUMMARY TABLE: GLOBAL CUMULATIVE INVESTMENTS IN DESALINATION PLANTS BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
SUMMARY FIGURE: GLOBAL CUMULATIVE INVESTMENTS IN DESALINATION PLANTS BY TECHNOLOGY, 2013-2020 ($ MILLIONS)
 
CHAPTER 3 - OVERVIEW
WATER DEMAND DRIVERS
POPULATION GROWTH
TABLE 1: POPULATION PRESSURES ON THE TOP WATER-SCARCE AREAS OF THE WORLD, 2010-2035
UNEVEN DISTRIBUTION OF DEMAND AND SUPPLY
TABLE 2: GLOBAL FRESHWATER RESOURCES SHARE BY COUNTRY, 2009 (%)
FIGURE 1: GLOBAL FRESHWATER RESOURCES SHARE BY COUNTRY, 2009 (%)
WATER, FOOD, AND ENERGY NEXUS
Energy
TABLE 3: GLOBAL POPULATION, ENERGY CONSUMPTION, AND WATER CONSUMPTION TRENDS FOR ENERGY, THROUGH 2050
FIGURE 2: GLOBAL POPULATION, ENERGY CONSUMPTION, AND WATER CONSUMPTION TRENDS FOR ENERGY, 2005-2050 (MILLIONS, BILLION M3/YEAR)
Agriculture
FIGURE 3: WATER WITHDRAWALS FOR AGRICULTURE, INDUSTRY, AND MUNICIPAL NEEDS BY REGION AND SECTOR, 2015 (%)
RESOURCE EXHAUSTION
FIGURE 4: GLOBAL GAP BETWEEN EXISTING WATER SUPPLY AND DEMAND, 2030 (BILLION M3)
FIGURE 5: WATER STRESS AREAS BY COUNTRY, 2040 (%)
TABLE 4: TOP 25 WATER-STRESSED COUNTRIES, 2020-2040
DESALINATION CONSIDERATIONS
DESALTED WATER END USES
TABLE 5: GLOBAL DESALTED WATER SHARE BY END USE, 2014 (%)
FIGURE 6: GLOBAL DESALTED WATER SHARE BY END USE, 2014 (%)
WATER SALINITY
TABLE 6: WATER SALINITY AND SUITABILITY FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (MG/L)
TABLE 7: SALT CONCENTRATIONS OF VARIOUS GLOBAL WATER SOURCES, 2014 (PPM)
TABLE 8: RELATIVE WATER HARDNESS LEVEL VALUES
SOURCE WATERS USED FOR DESALINATION
TABLE 9: GLOBAL DESALINATION CAPACITY AND SHARE BY WATER SOURCE TYPE, 2014 (MILLION M3/D, %)
FIGURE 7: GLOBAL DESALINATION CAPACITY AND SHARE BY WATER SOURCE TYPE, 2014 (%)
 
CHAPTER 4 - TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW
DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES
BRIEF HISTORY OF DESALINATION
FIGURE 8: TYPES OF ESTABLISHED DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES
MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGIES
THERMAL TECHNOLOGIES
COMPARISON OF MEMBRANE AND THERMAL TECHNOLOGIES
TABLE 10: COMPARISON OF PROCESS CHARACTERISTICS FOR THERMAL AND MEMBRANE DESALINATION METHODS
COMPARATIVE COSTS OF DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES
FIGURE 9: GLOBAL COMPARATIVE COSTS OF THERMAL AND MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGIES ($/M3)
TABLE 11: AVERAGE COST OF DELIVERED WATER BY SELECTED DESALINATION PLANTS AND COUNTRY, 2014 ($/M3)
TABLE 12: GLOBAL DESALINATION PLANT INSTALLATIONS: NUMBER AND CAPACITY, 1945-2015 (NUMBER, M3/D)
TABLE 13: LARGEST COMMISSIONED DESALINATION PLANTS BY RANK, 2010-2015
TABLE 14: GLOBAL SHARE OF INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2015 (MILLION M3/D, %)
TABLE 15: DISTRIBUTION OF DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES AMONG SELECTED COUNTRIES, 2014
MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGIES
REVERSE OSMOSIS
TABLE 16: MEMBRANE MANUFACTURERS AND PRODUCT TYPES, 2014
NANOFILTRATION
ELECTRODIALYSIS
THERMAL TECHNOLOGIES
MULTISTAGE FLASH DISTILLATION
MULTI-EFFECT DISTILLATION
VAPOR COMPRESSION
HYBRID REVERSE OSMOSIS/THERMAL PLANTS
OTHER TECHNOLOGIES
FREEZING
GAS HYDRATE PROCESSES
MEMBRANE DISTILLATION
SOLAR HUMIDIFICATION
FLOW-THROUGH CAPACITOR
FORWARD OSMOSIS
ION EXCHANGE
 
CHAPTER 5 - DESALINATION SYSTEM ECONOMICS: UNIT COST OF WATER
OVERVIEW
PLANT CAPACITY AND INITIAL CAPITAL INVESTMENT
MULTISTAGE FLASH DISTILLATION
MULTI-EFFECT DISTILLATION
REVERSE OSMOSIS
CAPITAL COST ESTIMATES BY TECHNOLOGY AND PLANT CAPACITY
TABLE 17: HYPOTHETICAL CAPITAL COSTS BY CAPACITY AND TECHNOLOGY (M3/D, $ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 10: HYPOTHETICAL CAPITAL COSTS BY CAPACITY AND TECHNOLOGY, ($ MILLIONS, M3/D)
TABLE 18: HYPOTHETICAL UNIT CAPITAL COSTS BY CAPACITY AND TECHNOLOGY (M3/D, $/M3)
FIGURE 11: HYPOTHETICAL UNIT CAPITAL COSTS BY CAPACITY AND TECHNOLOGY (M3/D, $/M3)
OPERATING AND MAINTENANCE COSTS
TABLE 19: O &M UNIT COSTS FOR HYPOTHETICAL RO DESALINATION PLANTS BY CAPACITY (M3/D, $/M3)
FIGURE 12: O&M UNIT COSTS FOR HYPOTHETICAL RO DESALINATION PLANTS BY CAPACITY (M3/D, $/M3)
TABLE 20: O &M UNIT COSTS FOR HYPOTHETICAL MULTI-EFFECT DISTILLATION DESALINATION PLANTS BY CAPACITY (M3/D, $/M3)
FIGURE 13: O&M UNIT COSTS FOR HYPOTHETICAL MULTI-EFFECT DESALINATION PLANTS BY CAPACITY (M3/D, $/M3)
ENERGY COSTS AND CARBON EMISSIONS
TABLE 21: VARIATION IN ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY DESALINATION TECHNOLOGY AND FEEDWATER SALINITY (MG/L, KWH/M3, %)
FIGURE 14: EFFECT OF ENERGY PRICE ON UNIT COST OF WATER FOR HYPOTHETICAL 500,000-M3/D RO DESALINATION PLANT ($/MMBTU, $/M3)
FIGURE 15: EFFECT OF OIL PRICE ON UNIT COST OF WATER FOR HYPOTHETICAL 500,000-M3/D MULTI-EFFECT DISTILLATION DESALINATION PLANT ($/BARREL OIL, $/M3)
TABLE 22: CARBON EMISSIONS OF DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES (KG CO2/M3)
ALL-IN UNIT COST OF WATER
COST OF MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGIES
TABLE 23: GLOBAL COST TRENDS FOR MEMBRANE DESALINATION, PRE-1985-2014
TABLE 24: GLOBAL SEAWATER DESALINATION COST REDUCTIONS, 1996-2014
COST OF THERMAL TECHNOLOGIES
MULTISTAGE Flash Distillation
FIGURE 16: GLOBAL MULTISTAGE FLASH DESALINATION COST TRENDS, 1955-2012 ($/M3)
Multi-Effect Distillation
SUMMARY
TABLE 25: COST ALLOCATIONS OF LEVELIZED COST OF WATER BY TECHNOLOGY, HYPOTHETICAL 500,000-M3/D PLANTS
FIGURE 17: COST ALLOCATION SHARE OF LEVELIZED COST OF WATER FOR BRACKISH AND SEAWATER RO DESALINATION PLANTS (%)
FIGURE 18: COST ALLOCATION SHARE OF LEVELIZED COST OF WATER FOR MED AND MSF THERMAL DESALINATION PLANTS (%)
TABLE 26: RELATIVE COSTS OF CSP-DRIVEN DESALINATION NEAR MIDDLE EASTERN BODIES OF WATER ($/M3)
Saudi Arabia Solar Projects
Wind
Tidal Energy
 
CHAPTER 6 - DESALINATION PLANT CAPACITY ADDITIONS AND INVESTMENTS: GLOBAL MARKET OUTLOOK
GLOBAL MARKET STATUS
TABLE 27: GLOBAL DESALINATION CAPACITY BY REGION, 2014 (THOUSAND M3/D, %)
FIGURE 19: GLOBAL DESALINATION CAPACITY SHARE BY REGION, 2014 (%)
TABLE 28: TOP 10 COUNTRIES WITH THE LARGEST INSTALLED DESALINATION CAPACITY, 2014 (MILLION M3/D)
REGIONAL OUTLOOKS
NORTH AMERICA
Economic Trends
Water Needs
TABLE 29: WATER DISTRIBUTION IN THE U.S. BY END-USE SECTOR, 2010 (THOUSAND M3/D, %)
FIGURE 20: WATER DISTRIBUTION IN THE U.S. BY END-USE SECTOR, 2010 (%)
Desalination Capacity
TABLE 30: FRESHWATER WITHDRAWAL OF TOP 10 STATES USING SALINE WATER SOURCES, 2010 (%)
TABLE 31: U.S. DESALINATION CAPACITY SHARE BY SOURCE-WATER TYPE, 2014 (%)
FIGURE 21: U.S. DESALINATION CAPACITY SHARE BY SOURCE-WATER TYPE, 2014 (%)
TABLE 32: INSTALLED U.S. DESALINATION CAPACITY SHARE BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2014 (THOUSAND M3/D, %)
TABLE 33: U.S. DESALTED WATER SHARE BY END USE, 2014 (%)
FIGURE 22: U.S. DESALTED WATER SHARE BY END USE, 2014 (%)
Outlook
Heartland
FIGURE 23: POTENTIALLY USABLE WATER FROM U.S. SALINE AQUIFERS
Mid-Atlantic
Oil, Gas, and Coal Basins
Inland Urban Areas
Coastal Urban Areas
Florida
California
Texas
Capacity and Investment Forecast-North America
TABLE 34: NORTH AMERICAN INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND M3/D)
TABLE 35: NORTH AMERICAN CUMULATIVE INVESTMENTS FOR DESALINATION BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
EUROPE
Economic Trends
Water Needs
Spain
Outlook
Cyprus
Outlook
U.K.
Outlook
Capacity and Investment Forecast-Europe
TABLE 36: EUROPEAN INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND M3/D)
TABLE 37: EUROPEAN CUMULATIVE INVESTMENTS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
MIDDLE EAST
Economic Trends
Water Needs
Algeria
Outlook
Israel
Outlook
Jordan
Outlook
Kuwait
Outlook
Oman
Outlook
Saudi Arabia
Outlook
UAE
Outlook
Capacity and Investment Forecast-Middle East
TABLE 38: MIDDLE EASTERN INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND M3/D)
TABLE 39: MIDDLE EASTERN CUMULATIVE INVESTMENTS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
ASIA
Economic Trends
TABLE 40: ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK GROWTH'S GDP FORECAST FOR SELECTED ASIAN COUNTRIES, 2014-2016
Water Needs
Australia
Outlook
China
Outlook
TABLE 41: CHINESE SEAWATER DESALINATION CAPACITY GOALS BY REGION, 2020 (THOUSAND M3/D)
TABLE 42: CAPITAL AND OPERATING COSTS OF SELECTED DESALINATION PLANTS IN CHINA
India and Pakistan
Outlook
Capacity and Investment Forecast-Asia
TABLE 43: ASIAN INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND M3/D)
TABLE 44: ASIAN CUMULATIVE INVESTMENTS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
LATIN AMERICA/CARIBBEAN
Economic Trends
Water Needs
Argentina
Chile
Outlook
Mexico
Outlook
Capacity and Investment Forecast-Latin America and the Caribbean
TABLE 45: LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND M3/D)
TABLE 46: LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN CUMULATIVE INVESTMENTS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA AND REST OF WORLD
Outlook
Capacity and Investment Forecast-Sub-Saharan Africa and Rest of World
TABLE 47: SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN AND REST OF WORLD INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND M3/D)
TABLE 48: SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN AND REST OF WORLD CUMULATIVE INVESTMENTS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
GLOBAL FORECASTS
GLOBAL DESALINATION CAPACITY ADDITIONS FORECAST
Global Desalination Capacity Forecast by Technology
Forecast Summary
TABLE 49: GLOBAL CUMULATIVE INSTALLED DESALINATION CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND M3/D)
FIGURE 24: GLOBAL CUMULATIVE INSTALLED DESALINATION CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY, 2013-2020 (THOUSAND M3/D)
Global Desalination Capacity Forecast by Region
TABLE 50: GLOBAL CUMULATIVE INSTALLED DESALINATION CAPACITY BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND M3/D)
FIGURE 25: GLOBAL CUMULATIVE INSTALLED DESALINATION CAPACITY BY REGION, 2013-2020 (THOUSAND M3/D)
GLOBAL INVESTMENT FORECAST
Global Investment Forecast by Region
TABLE 51: GLOBAL ANNUAL INVESTMENTS IN DESALINATION BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 26: GLOBAL ANNUAL INVESTMENTS IN DESALINATION BY REGION, 2013-2020 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 52: GLOBAL CUMULATIVE DESALINATION INVESTMENTS BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 27: GLOBAL CUMULATIVE DESALINATION INVESTMENTS BY REGION, 2013-2020 ($ MILLIONS)
Global Investment Forecast by Technology
Reverse Osmosis Technology Market Value
Multi-Effect Distillation and Multistage Flash Technology Market Values
Market Value of Other Technologies
Novel Technologies
 
CHAPTER 7 - RESEARCH TRENDS AND NATIONAL DESALINATION R&D PROGRAMS
ENERGY RECOVERY
LARGE-AREA MODULES
NANOFILTRATION PRETREATMENT
GLOBAL RESEARCH TRENDS
ADSORPTION DESALINATION (AD)
MEMBRANE DISTILLATION (MD)
NEW MEMBRANE MATERIALS
Nano-Enabled Membranes
TABLE 53: CHALLENGES AND POTENTIAL BENEFITS OF NANOMATERIAL MEMBRANES
Carbon Nanotube Membranes
Biomimetic Membranes
BRINE DISPOSAL
Alternative Brine Disposal Methods
RENEWABLE ENERGY-DRIVEN DESALINATION
FIGURE 28: RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES AND THEIR COMPATIBLE DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES
Solar
Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)
TABLE 54: RELATIVE COSTS OF CSP DRIVEN DESALINATION NEAR MIDDLE EASTERN BODIES OF WATER ($/M3)
NATIONAL R&D PROGRAMS
U.S. RESEARCH PRIORITIES
Desalination and Water Purification Roadmap
TABLE 55: DESALINATION AND WATER PURIFICATION ROADMAP: NATIONAL NEEDS AND RECOMMENDED R&D
Current Research Priorities
State Initiatives
TABLE 56: DESALINATION RESEARCH PRIORITIES BY STATE
National Priorities
TABLE 57: DESALINATION RESEARCH PRIORITIES BY NATIONAL ORGANIZATION
AUSTRALIAN RESEARCH PRIORITIES
FIGURE 29: AUSTRALIAN DESALINATION PLANT UNIT COST OF CAPACITY ($/M3/D)
TABLE 58: AUSTRALIAN DESALINATION R&D PRIORITY THEMES
JAPAN (GLOBAL AQUA INNOVATION CENTER)
TABLE 59: GLOBAL AQUA INNOVATION CENTER R&D ROADMAP, 2013-2021
KOREAN NATIONAL R&D PROGRAM
SAUDI ARABIA WATER DESALINATION AND REUSE CENTER
SOUTH AFRICA NATIONAL WATER RESOURCE STRATEGY
 
CHAPTER 8 - INDUSTRY STRUCTURE
INDUSTRY STRUCTURE
COMPANY PROFILES
ABENGOA WATER
ACCIONA AGUA/ACCIONA SA
ACE WATER TREATMENT CO. LTD.
ACWA (ARABIAN COMPANY FOR WATER & POWER DEVELOPMENT) POWER INTERNATIONAL
AL KAWTHER INDUSTRIES LTD.
ALFA LAVAL
ALKEMA SOLUTIONS
AQUALIA
AQUALYNG
AQUATECH INTERNATIONAL CORP.
BIWATER PLC
CADAGUA
CLYDEUNION PUMPS/SPX CORP.
CONSOLIDATED WATER CO. LTD.
CORODEX INDUSTRIES
CSM FILTERS
CULLIGAN INTERNATIONAL
Italy
DANFOSS A/S
DEMONT
DOOSAN HEAVY INDUSTRIES & CONSTRUCTION
DOW CHEMICAL CO.
DUCHTING PUMPS
EBARA CORP.
ENERGY RECOVERY INC.
EVOQUA WATER TECHNOLOGIES (FORMERLY SIEMENS WATER TECHNOLOGY)
FICHTNER GMBH
FISIA ITALIMPIANTI
FLOWSERVE
FLUID EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENT CO. (FEDCO)
GENERAL ELECTRIC
GRAHAMTEK SYSTEMS
GRUNDFOS
GS INIMA ENVIRONMENT S.A.
H2O INNOVATION
HITACHI ZOSEN CORP.
HYFLUX LTD.
IDE TECHNOLOGIES LTD.
ILF CONSULTING ENGINEERS
INGETEAM (INDAR)
KINDASA WATER SERVICES
KOCH MEMBRANE SYSTEMS
KSB GROUP
KULJIAN CORP.
KURITA WATER INDUSTRIES
LAHMEYER INTERNATIONAL GMBH
LG WATER SOLUTIONS
MARUBENI CORP.
MEMSYS GMBH
MET-PRO GLOBAL PUMP SOLUTIONS
METITO (OVERSEAS) LTD.
MITSUBISHI HEAVY INDUSTRIES
NANOASIS
NITTO (HYDRANAUTICS)
ORGANO CORP.
OSMOFLO
PENTAIR
PORIFERA INC.
POSEIDON WATER
SACYR GLOBAL
SALINE WATER CONVERSION CORPORATION (SWCC)
SALT SEPARATION SERVICES LTD.
SASAKURA ENGINEERING
SEMBCORP UTILITIES PTE LTD.
SETE ENERGY SAUDIA FOR INDUSTRIAL PROJECTS LTD. (SETE ENERGY)
SEVERN TRENT SERVICES
SOGEX OMAN CO. LLC
SUEZ ENVIRONNEMENT (DEGREMONT)
SULZER/SULZER PUMPS
SUMITOMO CORP.
TEDAGUA/COBRA GROUP (ACS)
TORAY INDUSTRIES
Toray Membrane USA
TORISHIMA PUMP MANUFACTURING CO. LTD.
TOYOBO CO. LTD.
UEM INC.
VEOLIA WATER SOLUTIONS & TECHNOLOGIES
WETICO
XYLEM INC.
 
CHAPTER 9 - PATENT ANALYSIS
PATENTS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE
TABLE 61: PATENT SHARE BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2013-2015 (NUMBER, %)
PATENTS BY COMPANY
TABLE 62: PATENT SHARE BY COMPANY/INDIVIDUAL PATENT HOLDER*, 2013-2015 (NUMBER, %)
 
CHAPTER 10 - GLOSSARY
TABLE 63: GLOSSARY
 
CHAPTER 11 - ACRONYMS
TABLE 64: ACRONYMS
 
CHAPTER 12 - APPENDIX
TABLE 65: PATENT SURVEY, 2013
TABLE 66: PATENT SURVEY, 2014
TABLE 67: PATENT SURVEY, 2015
 
LIST OF TABLES
SUMMARY TABLE: GLOBAL CUMULATIVE INVESTMENTS IN DESALINATION PLANTS BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 1: POPULATION PRESSURES ON THE TOP WATER-SCARCE AREAS OF THE WORLD, 2010-2035
TABLE 2: GLOBAL FRESHWATER RESOURCES SHARE BY COUNTRY, 2009 (%)
TABLE 3: GLOBAL POPULATION, ENERGY CONSUMPTION, AND WATER CONSUMPTION TRENDS FOR ENERGY, THROUGH 2050
TABLE 4: TOP 25 WATER-STRESSED COUNTRIES, 2020-2040
TABLE 5: GLOBAL DESALTED WATER SHARE BY END USE, 2014 (%)
TABLE 6: WATER SALINITY AND SUITABILITY FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (MG/L)
TABLE 7: SALT CONCENTRATIONS OF VARIOUS GLOBAL WATER SOURCES, 2014 (PPM)
TABLE 8: RELATIVE WATER HARDNESS LEVEL VALUES
TABLE 9: GLOBAL DESALINATION CAPACITY AND SHARE BY WATER SOURCE TYPE, 2014 (MILLION M3/D, %)
TABLE 10: COMPARISON OF PROCESS CHARACTERISTICS FOR THERMAL AND MEMBRANE DESALINATION METHODS
TABLE 11: AVERAGE COST OF DELIVERED WATER BY SELECTED DESALINATION PLANTS AND COUNTRY, 2014 ($/M3)
TABLE 12: GLOBAL DESALINATION PLANT INSTALLATIONS: NUMBER AND CAPACITY, 1945-2015 (NUMBER, M3/D)
TABLE 13: LARGEST COMMISSIONED DESALINATION PLANTS BY RANK, 2010-2015
TABLE 14: GLOBAL SHARE OF INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2015 (MILLION M3/D, %)
TABLE 15: DISTRIBUTION OF DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES AMONG SELECTED COUNTRIES, 2014
TABLE 16: MEMBRANE MANUFACTURERS AND PRODUCT TYPES, 2014
TABLE 17: HYPOTHETICAL CAPITAL COSTS BY CAPACITY AND TECHNOLOGY (M3/D, $ MILLIONS)
TABLE 18: HYPOTHETICAL UNIT CAPITAL COSTS BY CAPACITY AND TECHNOLOGY (M3/D, $/M3)
TABLE 19: O &M UNIT COSTS FOR HYPOTHETICAL RO DESALINATION PLANTS BY CAPACITY (M3/D, $/M3)
TABLE 20: O &M UNIT COSTS FOR HYPOTHETICAL MULTI-EFFECT DISTILLATION DESALINATION PLANTS BY CAPACITY (M3/D, $/M3)
TABLE 21: VARIATION IN ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY DESALINATION TECHNOLOGY AND FEEDWATER SALINITY (MG/L, KWH/M3, %)
TABLE 22: CARBON EMISSIONS OF DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES (KG CO2/M3)
TABLE 23: GLOBAL COST TRENDS FOR MEMBRANE DESALINATION, PRE-1985-2014
TABLE 24: GLOBAL SEAWATER DESALINATION COST REDUCTIONS, 1996-2014
TABLE 25: COST ALLOCATIONS OF LEVELIZED COST OF WATER BY TECHNOLOGY, HYPOTHETICAL 500,000-M3/D PLANTS
TABLE 26: RELATIVE COSTS OF CSP-DRIVEN DESALINATION NEAR MIDDLE EASTERN BODIES OF WATER ($/M3)
TABLE 27: GLOBAL DESALINATION CAPACITY BY REGION, 2014 (THOUSAND M3/D, %)
TABLE 28: TOP 10 COUNTRIES WITH THE LARGEST INSTALLED DESALINATION CAPACITY, 2014 (MILLION M3/D)
TABLE 29: WATER DISTRIBUTION IN THE U.S. BY END-USE SECTOR, 2010 (THOUSAND M3/D, %)
TABLE 30: FRESHWATER WITHDRAWAL OF TOP 10 STATES USING SALINE WATER SOURCES, 2010 (%)
TABLE 31: U.S. DESALINATION CAPACITY SHARE BY SOURCE-WATER TYPE, 2014 (%)
TABLE 32: INSTALLED U.S. DESALINATION CAPACITY SHARE BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2014 (THOUSAND M3/D, %)
TABLE 33: U.S. DESALTED WATER SHARE BY END USE, 2014 (%)
TABLE 34: NORTH AMERICAN INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND M3/D)
TABLE 35: NORTH AMERICAN CUMULATIVE INVESTMENTS FOR DESALINATION BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 36: EUROPEAN INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND M3/D)
TABLE 37: EUROPEAN CUMULATIVE INVESTMENTS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 38: MIDDLE EASTERN INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND M3/D)
TABLE 39: MIDDLE EASTERN CUMULATIVE INVESTMENTS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 40: ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK GROWTH'S GDP FORECAST FOR SELECTED ASIAN COUNTRIES, 2014-2016
TABLE 41: CHINESE SEAWATER DESALINATION CAPACITY GOALS BY REGION, 2020 (THOUSAND M3/D)
TABLE 42: CAPITAL AND OPERATING COSTS OF SELECTED DESALINATION PLANTS IN CHINA
TABLE 43: ASIAN INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND M3/D)
TABLE 44: ASIAN CUMULATIVE INVESTMENTS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 45: LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND M3/D)
TABLE 46: LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN CUMULATIVE INVESTMENTS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 47: SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN AND REST OF WORLD INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND M3/D)
TABLE 48: SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN AND REST OF WORLD CUMULATIVE INVESTMENTS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 49: GLOBAL CUMULATIVE INSTALLED DESALINATION CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND M3/D)
TABLE 50: GLOBAL CUMULATIVE INSTALLED DESALINATION CAPACITY BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND M3/D)
TABLE 51: GLOBAL ANNUAL INVESTMENTS IN DESALINATION BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 52: GLOBAL CUMULATIVE DESALINATION INVESTMENTS BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 53: CHALLENGES AND POTENTIAL BENEFITS OF NANOMATERIAL MEMBRANES
TABLE 54: RELATIVE COSTS OF CSP DRIVEN DESALINATION NEAR MIDDLE EASTERN BODIES OF WATER ($/M3)
TABLE 55: DESALINATION AND WATER PURIFICATION ROADMAP: NATIONAL NEEDS AND RECOMMENDED R&D
TABLE 56: DESALINATION RESEARCH PRIORITIES BY STATE
TABLE 57: DESALINATION RESEARCH PRIORITIES BY NATIONAL ORGANIZATION
TABLE 58: AUSTRALIAN DESALINATION R&D PRIORITY THEMES
TABLE 59: GLOBAL AQUA INNOVATION CENTER R&D ROADMAP, 2013-2021
TABLE 61: PATENT SHARE BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2013-2015 (NUMBER, %)
TABLE 62: PATENT SHARE BY COMPANY/INDIVIDUAL PATENT HOLDER*, 2013-2015 (NUMBER, %)
TABLE 63: GLOSSARY
TABLE 64: ACRONYMS
TABLE 65: PATENT SURVEY, 2013
TABLE 66: PATENT SURVEY, 2014
TABLE 67: PATENT SURVEY, 2015
 
LIST OF FIGURES
SUMMARY FIGURE: GLOBAL CUMULATIVE INVESTMENTS IN DESALINATION PLANTS BY TECHNOLOGY, 2013-2020 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 1: GLOBAL FRESHWATER RESOURCES SHARE BY COUNTRY, 2009 (%)
FIGURE 2: GLOBAL POPULATION, ENERGY CONSUMPTION, AND WATER CONSUMPTION TRENDS FOR ENERGY, 2005-2050 (MILLIONS, BILLION M3/YEAR)
FIGURE 3: WATER WITHDRAWALS FOR AGRICULTURE, INDUSTRY, AND MUNICIPAL NEEDS BY REGION AND SECTOR, 2015 (%)
FIGURE 4: GLOBAL GAP BETWEEN EXISTING WATER SUPPLY AND DEMAND, 2030 (BILLION M3)
FIGURE 5: WATER STRESS AREAS BY COUNTRY, 2040 (%)
FIGURE 6: GLOBAL DESALTED WATER SHARE BY END USE, 2014 (%)
FIGURE 7: GLOBAL DESALINATION CAPACITY AND SHARE BY WATER SOURCE TYPE, 2014 (%)
FIGURE 8: TYPES OF ESTABLISHED DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES
FIGURE 9: GLOBAL COMPARATIVE COSTS OF THERMAL AND MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGIES ($/M3)
FIGURE 10: HYPOTHETICAL CAPITAL COSTS BY CAPACITY AND TECHNOLOGY, ($ MILLIONS, M3/D)
FIGURE 11: HYPOTHETICAL UNIT CAPITAL COSTS BY CAPACITY AND TECHNOLOGY (M3/D, $/M3)
FIGURE 12: O&M UNIT COSTS FOR HYPOTHETICAL RO DESALINATION PLANTS BY CAPACITY (M3/D, $/M3)
FIGURE 13: O&M UNIT COSTS FOR HYPOTHETICAL MULTI-EFFECT DESALINATION PLANTS BY CAPACITY (M3/D, $/M3)
FIGURE 14: EFFECT OF ENERGY PRICE ON UNIT COST OF WATER FOR HYPOTHETICAL 500,000-M3/D RO DESALINATION PLANT ($/MMBTU, $/M3)
FIGURE 15: EFFECT OF OIL PRICE ON UNIT COST OF WATER FOR HYPOTHETICAL 500,000-M3/D MULTI-EFFECT DISTILLATION DESALINATION PLANT ($/BARREL OIL, $/M3)
FIGURE 16: GLOBAL MULTISTAGE FLASH DESALINATION COST TRENDS, 1955-2012 ($/M3)
FIGURE 17: COST ALLOCATION SHARE OF LEVELIZED COST OF WATER FOR BRACKISH AND SEAWATER RO DESALINATION PLANTS (%)
FIGURE 18: COST ALLOCATION SHARE OF LEVELIZED COST OF WATER FOR MED AND MSF THERMAL DESALINATION PLANTS (%)
FIGURE 19: GLOBAL DESALINATION CAPACITY SHARE BY REGION, 2014 (%)
FIGURE 20: WATER DISTRIBUTION IN THE U.S. BY END-USE SECTOR, 2010 (%)
FIGURE 21: U.S. DESALINATION CAPACITY SHARE BY SOURCE-WATER TYPE, 2014 (%)
FIGURE 22: U.S. DESALTED WATER SHARE BY END USE, 2014 (%)
FIGURE 23: POTENTIALLY USABLE WATER FROM U.S. SALINE AQUIFERS
FIGURE 24: GLOBAL CUMULATIVE INSTALLED DESALINATION CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY, 2013-2020 (THOUSAND M3/D)
FIGURE 25: GLOBAL CUMULATIVE INSTALLED DESALINATION CAPACITY BY REGION, 2013-2020 (THOUSAND M3/D)
FIGURE 26: GLOBAL ANNUAL INVESTMENTS IN DESALINATION BY REGION, 2013-2020 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 27: GLOBAL CUMULATIVE DESALINATION INVESTMENTS BY REGION, 2013-2020 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 28: RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES AND THEIR COMPATIBLE DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES
FIGURE 29: AUSTRALIAN DESALINATION PLANT UNIT COST OF CAPACITY ($/M3/D)

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