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2016-2021年全球生物炼制技术市场研究报告 (2016 版)
Biorefinery Technologies: Global Markets (Version 2016)

2016-2021年全球生物炼制技术市场研究报告 (2016 版)
【报告编号】:No.25804
【发布时间】:2016-07
【关 键 字】:Biorefinery Technology     生物炼制技术        
【报告页数】:315页
【报告价格】:电子版:6650美元
【交付方式】:Email发送或EMS快递
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DESCRIPTION
 
REPORT HIGHLIGHTS
 
The global market for Biorefinery technologies will grow from $466.6 million in 2016 to $714.6 million by 2021, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 8.9% for the period of 2016-2021.
 
This report provides:
A complete techno-economic and environmental analysis of industrial biorefineries, which have been identified as the most promising route to the creation of a domestic bio-based industry
Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2014 to 2016, and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through 2021.
Coverage of all biomass fractionation and conversion technologies
Forecasts for biomass conversion processes and equipment to produce fuels, power, and chemicals from biomass
Identification of feedstocks, chemical products, and transportation fuels
Evaluations of the prospects for biorefineries built on different "platforms," such as the "sugar platform," based on fermentation of sugars extracted from biomass feedstocks, versus the "syngas platform," based on thermochemical conversion processes
Detailed patent analysis and a research-and-development update
Company profiles of major players in the industry.
SCOPE OF THE REPORT
 
The report starts with an overview that provides the background of the industry and reports on market trends. It also indicates the importance of the industry and the ways in which biorefinery technologies fit into the global economy. It also quantifies staffing and salary, professions, carriers, occupations, new product development and market penetration. It then presents the relative percentage contribution of each of the identified platforms with forecasts to 2021.
 
Chapter Four quantifies the demand for the physicochemical technology platform, including processes (e.g., pressing, pretreatment, milling, separation, distillation) that do not change the chemical structure of the biomass components, but perform a size reduction or a separation of feedstock components and chemical processes (e.g., hydrolysis, transesterification, hydrogenation, oxidation, pulping) in which a chemical change in the substrate occurs.
 
Chapter Five quantifies the demand for the biological technology platform, including industrial microbiological processes such as anaerobic digestion, anaerobic fermentation, enzymatic conversion that occur under mild operating conditions (e.g., lower temperature and pressure) using microorganisms or enzymes.
 
Chapter Six quantifies the demand for the thermochemical technology platform, including pyrolysis; gasification, hydrothermal upgrading and combustion, including processes in which feedstock undergoes extreme conditions (e.g., high temperature and/or pressure, with or without a catalytic means).
 
Chapter Seven identifies and quantifies the demand for the hybrid technology platform including biological transformation (fermentation) of biomass gasification-derived syngas to alcohols, thermochemical catalytic transformation of biochemical platform-produced sugars (and perhaps other solubilized carbon species) to hydrocarbon biofuels and thermochemical catalytic transformation of biochemical platform produced alcohols such as ethanol or butanol into hydrocarbon biofuels
 
Chapter Eight presents the development of advanced biorefinery technologies and process developments and includes an evaluation of major patents and company shares.
 
Chapter Nine describes the biorefinery technology industry structure. It considers a number of influencing factors, including macro factors that affect the global economy and the agricultural economy in particular, and industry-specific factors such as the public acceptance of biorefinery products. Consideration has also been given to the development of the industry over the period since 2013 and the forces that have led to its ongoing restructuring. It also assesses the rise of bio-based companies; outsourcing; adding value through improved formulations, drop-ins and additives; and the streamlining of product portfolios
 
Chapter Ten discusses the macroeconomic aspects and energy perspective and geographical diversification of the major international trends.
 
Chapter Eleven analyzes the future of the regulation and legislation of the biorefinery industry.
 
The report concludes with a chapter that contains comprehensive profiles of the relevant companies involved in biorefinery technologies, including biorefinery technology integrators that currently have assets that can be deployed to transform biomass feedstocks.
 
ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS
Edward Gobina is a Full U.K. Professor of Chemical and Processing Engineering with 32 years of research and teaching experience in environmental engineering, petrochemical reaction engineering and catalytic membrane-reactor technology. His scientific achievements are archived in more than 300 scientific articles and are found in more than 25 granted patents, 30 patent applications and 100 invited and guest speaker presentations, as well as contributed presentations and prestigious refereed scientific journals, newsletters, proceedings and reviews. He has been a project analyst for BCC Research since 1998 and has authored more than 26 BCC Research reports. His reports have provided the critical links in the entire chemical and energy infrastructure chain occasioned from hydrogen to advanced oil and gas exploitation, sensors and monitoring, and LNG infrastructure. Professor Gobina is a member of the European Membrane Society (EMS), the North American Membrane Society (NAMS) and the New York Academy of Sciences (NYAS). He is the current director of the Centre for Process Integration and Membrane Technology (CPIMT) within the School of Engineering at the Robert Gordon University in the U.K.
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION
STUDY GOAL AND OBJECTIVES
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY
INTENDED AUDIENCE
ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS
METHODOLOGY
SCOPE OF THE REPORT
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE
DISCLAIMER
 
CHAPTER 2 - SUMMARY
SUMMARY TABLE: GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES BY TYPE OF PLATFORM, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS)
SUMMARY FIGURE: GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES BY TYPE OF PLATFORM, 2013--2021 ($ BILLIONS)
 
CHAPTER 3 - OVERVIEW
INTRODUCTION
TABLE 1: GENERALIZED BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY CONFIGURATIONS
INDUSTRY DEFINITION
TABLE 2: BIOREFINERY SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION USING CURRENT METHODS
TABLE 3: GENERALIZED BIOREFINERY OUTLINE USING CURRENT METHODS
GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOREFINERY APPLICATIONS
TABLE 4: GLOBAL MARKET FOR APPLICATIONS OF BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES BY PRODUCT TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS)
ENERGY PRODUCTS BY INDUSTRY APPLICATION
Global Petroleum Demand
Global Natural Gas Demand
Global Power/Heat Demand
Global Coal Demand
TABLE 5: GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES USED TO PROCESS ENERGY PRODUCTS BY INDUSTRY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS)
NON-ENERGY PRODUCTS BY INDUSTRY APPLICATION
Global Chemical Demand
Global Plastics/Polymers Demand
Global Composite Materials Demand
Global Pharmaceutical Demand
TABLE 6: GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES USED TO PROCESS NON-ENERGY PRODUCTS BY INDUSTRY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS)
MARKET PENETRATION
TABLE 7: GLOBAL BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES MARKET PENETRATION, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS)
TABLE 8: MAJOR BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM ACTIVITIES AND PRODUCTS
OVERVIEW OF THE BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY SUPPLY CHAIN
TABLE 9: ENERGETIC AND NON-ENERGETIC FOREST BIOREFINERY SUPPLY CHAIN
OVERVIEW OF THE BIOMASS VALUE CHAIN CONVERSION PROCESS
TABLE 10: OVERVIEW OF THE BIOMASS VALUE CHAIN CONVERSION PROCESS
TABLE 11: LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS VALUE CHAIN CONVERSION PROCESS
TABLE 12: PROCESSES USED AND PRODUCTS EXTRACTED FROM PLANTS
LARGE-VOLUME OILS
SMALL-VOLUME OILS
FIGURE 1: VALUE CHAIN OF THE NATURAL INGREDIENT INDUSTRY
OVERVIEW OF INDUSTRY AND MATERIAL USES
TABLE 13: OVERVIEW OF INDUSTRIAL AND MATERIAL USE OF BIO-BASED RAW MATERIALS
OVERVIEW OF BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY CONVERSION ROUTES
TABLE 14: BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY CONVERSION ROUTES OF PLANT BIOMASS
BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY MARKET FEATURES AND RELATIVE SUBGROUPS
TABLE 15: BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES APPROACHES: MARKET FEATURES AND RELATIVE SUBGROUPS
IMPORTANCE OF BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES
TABLE 16: PRIMARY BIOREFINERY CONVERSION TECHNOLOGIES TO CRUDE PRODUCTS
SECONDARY AND TERTIARY BIOREFINERY TRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY TO PRODUCT
TABLE 17: SECONDARY AND TERTIARY BIOREFINERY TRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES TO PRODUCT
VALUE-ADDED BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY OPPORTUNITIES
TABLE 18: EFFECTIVE H/C RATIO IN RELATION TO THE BIOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM AND ITS INTERMEDIATES
TABLE 19: HYDROGEN TO CARBON RATIO STAIRCASE FOR FOSSIL FUEL FEEDSTOCKS
SELECTED JOBS IN ADVANCED BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES
TABLE 20: SELECTED EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES AMONG ADVANCED BIOREFINERY COMPANIES
PROFESSIONS, OCCUPATIONS, CAREERS AND WAGES IN BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY
TABLE 21: STAFFING AND SALARY PROJECTIONS FOR A PROTOTYPE 10-MILLION-GALLON-PER-YEAR RURAL BIOREFINERY, THROUGH 2020 ($ THOUSANDS)
Science Professions: Occupations, Careers and Wages
TABLE 22: SELECTED SCIENCE OCCUPATIONS AND MEDIAN ANNUAL WAGES, THROUGH 2021 ($ THOUSANDS)
Engineering and Mapping Professions: Occupations, Careers and Wages
TABLE 23: SELECTED ENGINEERING AND MAPPING OCCUPATIONS AND MEDIAN ANNUAL WAGES, THROUGH 2021 ($ THOUSANDS)
Construction and Material-Moving Professions: Occupations, Careers and Wages
TABLE 24: SELECTED CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIAL-MOVING OCCUPATIONS AND MEDIAN ANNUAL WAGES, THROUGH 2021 ($ THOUSANDS)
Industrial Microbiology Professions: Occupations, Careers and Wages
TABLE 25: SELECTED INDUSTRIAL MICROBIOLOGY OCCUPATIONS AND MEDIAN ANNUAL WAGES, THROUGH 2021 ($ THOUSANDS)
Agriculture Professions: Occupations, Careers and Wages
TABLE 26: SELECTED AGRICULTURE OCCUPATIONS AND MEDIAN ANNUAL WAGES, THROUGH 2021 ($ THOUSANDS)
Production Professions: Occupations, Careers and Wages
TABLE 27: SELECTED PRODUCTION OCCUPATIONS AND MEDIAN ANNUAL WAGES, THROUGH 2021 ($ THOUSANDS)
Sales Professions: Occupations, Careers and Wages
TABLE 28: SELECTED SALES OCCUPATIONS AND MEDIAN ANNUAL WAGES, THROUGH 2021 ($ THOUSANDS)
Management and Business Specialist Professions: Occupations, Careers and Wages
TABLE 29: SELECTED MANAGEMENT AND BUSINESS SPECIALIST OCCUPATIONS AND MEDIAN ANNUAL WAGES, THROUGH 2021 ($ THOUSANDS)
Mechanics and Maintenance Professions: Occupations, Careers and Wages
TABLE 30: SELECTED MECHANIC AND MAINTENANCE OCCUPATIONS AND MEDIAN ANNUAL WAGES, THROUGH 2021 ($ THOUSANDS)
HISTORY OF BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES AND MATURITY STATUS
TABLE 31: RFS2 DATA, CONVENTIONAL BIOFUEL AND ADVANCED BIOFUEL (BILLION GALLONS)
TABLE 32: BIOMASS CONVERSION TECHNOLOGY MATURITY STATUS
ANTICIPATED CHEMICAL AND MATERIAL DEVELOPMENT PATHWAY BY KEY FEEDSTOCK
TABLE 33: ANTICIPATED CHEMICAL AND MATERIAL DEVELOPMENT PATHWAY BY KEY FEEDSTOCK
U.S. GOVERNMENT SUPPORT FOR BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES
TABLE 34: U.S. FEDERAL FUNDING FOR ADVANCED BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES, 2007-2014 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 35: U.S. FEDERAL AND PUBLIC FUNDING FOR ADVANCED BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES 2015-2016 ($ MILLIONS)
OVERVIEW OF IMPORTANT DEVELOPMENTS IN BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES
TABLE 36: IMPORTANT DEVELOPMENTS IN BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES
FUTURE OF BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES
MACROECONOMIC OVERVIEW
TABLE 37: REAL GDP AND INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION GROWTH, THROUGH 2021 (% CHANGE ON PREVIOUS YEAR)
OVERVIEW OF GLOBAL DEMAND FOR BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES
TABLE 38: GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES BY TYPE OF PLATFORM, THROUGH 2021 (%)
 
CHAPTER 4 - DEMAND FOR THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL PLATFORM
INTRODUCTION
TABLE 39: PHYSICOCHEMICAL CONVERSION OF BUILDING-BLOCK CHEMICALS, THEIR DERIVATIVES AND POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS
FIGURE 2: BASIC OLEOCHEMICAL, DOWNSTREAM OLEOCHEMICAL AND DERIVATIVE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY
FIGURE 3: TRANSESTERIFICATION AND EPOXIDATION, HYDROFORMYLATION AND METATHESIS REACTIONS
FIGURE 4: BASIC OLEOCHEMICAL AND DOWNSTREAM OLEOCHEMICAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY
DEMAND FOR THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM BY PRODUCT SEGMENT
TABLE 40: GLOBAL MARKET FOR THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM BY PRODUCT SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS)
SPECIALTY/FINE CHEMICALS PRODUCTION BY PHYSICOHEMICAL TRANSFORMATION
Biopesticides
Glycerol
Biosolvents
Biolubricants
Lignin and Specialty Cellulose
Antioxidants
Detergent Alcohols and Fatty Acids
TABLE 41: GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIO-DERIVED FINE CHEMICALS PRODUCED BY PHYSICOCHEMICAL CONVERSION TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS)
BIOPOLYMERS AND BIOPLASTICS PRODUCTION BY PHYSICOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY
Caustic Oxidation Technology
Oleic Acid and Ozonolysis Technology
Oleic Acid and Dimerization Technology
Oxidation and Epoxidation Epoxy Ring Opening Technology
TABLE 42: GLOBAL MARKET FOR LIPID CONVERSION BIOPOLYMER/ BIOPLASTIC BUILDING-BLOCK TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS)
BIOCOMPOSITE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY
TABLE 43: BIOCOMPOSITE TECHNOLOGY VALUE ADDITION
Natural Fiber Process Techniques and Applications
TABLE 44: NATURAL FIBER PROCESS TECHNIQUES AND APPLICATIONS
Biocomposite Structure
TABLE 45: BIOCOMPOSITE PRODUCT STRUCTURE
Biocomposites by Processing Technology
TABLE 46: BIOCOMPOSITE PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY
Processing Techniques
Resin Transfer Molding and Vacuum Injection Technology
Sheet Molding Compound Technology
Vacuum Pressing Technology
Sandwich Technology
TABLE 47: GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOCOMPOSITE TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS)
Biocomposites by Type of Production Technology
Thermoset
Thermoplastic
TABLE 48: GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOCOMPOSITE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS)
VEGETABLE OIL FUEL TECHNOLOGY
TABLE 49: GLOBAL MARKET FOR VEGETABLE OIL FUEL TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS)
Straight Vegetable Oil Technology
Single-Tank System Technology
Two-Tank System Technology
TABLE 50: GLOBAL MARKET FOR STRAIGHT VEGETABLE OIL ENGINE TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS)
Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil Technology
TABLE 51: CURRENT GLOBAL ANNUAL PRODUCTION CAPACITY OF HVO DROP-IN BIOFUELS
Diesel Technology
Jet Technology
TABLE 52: GLOBAL MARKET FOR HYDROGENATED VEGETABLE OIL FUEL BY TYPE OF ENGINE TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS)
BIODIESEL TECHNOLOGY
FIGURE 5 CHEMICAL PROCESSES FOR METHYL OR ETHYL ESTER BIODIESEL PRODUCTION AND PRODUCT YIELDS
TABLE 53: BIODIESEL BY ESTERIFICATION OF VEGETABLE OIL PRODUCTION
Biodiesel Technology by Type of Feedstock
TABLE 54: FLOW CHART OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL
Alcohol and Catalyst Mixing Technology
Chemical Reaction Technology
Separation Technology
Alcohol Removal Technology
Glycerin Neutralization Technology
Methyl Ester Wash Technology
Product Quality Technology
TABLE 55: GLOBAL MARKET FOR VEGETABLE OIL IN BIODIESEL PRODUCTION BY TYPE OF FEEDSTOCK TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2021 (THOUSAND METRIC TONS)
Biodiesel Production by Type of Esterification Technology
TABLE 56: GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIODIESEL BY TYPE OF ESTERIFICATION TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS)
Biodiesel Technology by Type of Catalyst
Base-Catalyzed Transesterification Technology
Acid-Catalyzed Transesterification Technology
Enzyme-Catalyzed Biodiesel Technology
Other Alternative Catalysts
Solid Heterogeneous Catalysts
Supercritical Methanol
TABLE 57: GLOBAL MARKET FOR PHYSICOCHEMICAL CATALYSIS OF BIODIESEL BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS)
HERBS/BOTANICALS AND PHYTOCHEMICALS
TABLE 58: GLOBAL MARKET FOR HERBAL/BOTANICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS)
Drugs Derived from Plant Root Technology
Aconite
Colchicum
Gentian
Goldenseal
Ginseng
Ipecac
Jalap
Licorice
Podophyllum
Rhubarb
Squills
Senega
Valerian
Lonchocarpus
Derris
Rotenone
TABLE 59: GLOBAL MARKET FOR HERBAL/BOTANICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF PLANT ROOT, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS)
Drugs Derived from the Bark of Plant Technology
Sangre de Grado
Cascara
Curare
Quinine
Slippery Elm
TABLE 60: GLOBAL MARKET FOR HERBAL/BOTANICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF PLANT BARK, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS)
Drugs Derived from Stem and Wood Technology
Ephedrine
Guiacum
Quassia
TABLE 61: GLOBAL MARKET FOR HERBAL/BOTANICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF STEM AND WOOD, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS)
Drugs Derived from Plant Leaf Technology
Aloe
Belladonna
Cocaine
Buchu
Digitalis
Eucalyptus
Hamamelis
Henbane
Hoarhound
Lobelia
Pennyroyal
Senna
Stramonium
Wormwood
TABLE 62: GLOBAL MARKET FOR HERBAL/BOTANICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF PLANT LEAF, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS)
Drugs Derived from Flower Technology
Pyrethrum
Chamomile
Hops
Santonin
Red Squill
TABLE 63: GLOBAL MARKET FOR HERBAL/BOTANICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF PLANT FLOWER, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS)
Drugs Derived from Fruit and Seed Technology
Chaulmoogra Oil
Colocynth
Cubebs
Croton Oil
Nux Vomica
Opium
Psyllium
Strophanthus
Wormseed
TABLE 64: GLOBAL MARKET FOR HERBAL/BOTANICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF PLANT FRUIT AND SEED, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS)
Drugs Derived from Rhizome Technology
Gingerroot
Galangal
Galangal Varieties
Turmeric
TABLE 65: GLOBAL MARKET FOR HERBAL/BOTANICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF PLANT RHIZOME, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS)
Drugs Derived from Lower Plant Technology
Antibiotics
Agar
Ergot
Kelp
Lycopodium
Male Fern
TABLE 66: GLOBAL MARKET FOR HERBAL/BOTANICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF LOWER PLANT, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS)
HERBAL/BOTANICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY BY EXTRACTION METHOD
Cold Pressing Technology
Water-Extraction Technology
Water Maceration
Water/Steam Distillation
Enfleurage Technology
Low-Boiling Solvent Extraction Technology
Drying
TABLE 67: GLOBAL MARKET FOR HERBAL/BOTANICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOUNDS BY EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS)
 
CHAPTER 5 - DEMAND FOR THE BIOLOGICAL PLATFORM
INTRODUCTION
TABLE 68: GLOBAL MARKET FOR THE BIOLOGICAL PLATFORM BY TYPE OF TRANSFORMATION, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS)
TABLE 69: BIOTECHNOLOGY SEGMENTS
TABLE 70: BIOLOGICAL CONVERSION FOR CHEMICAL BUILDING BLOCKS, THEIR DERIVATIVES AND THEIR POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS
FIGURE 6: BIOTECHNICAL SYNTHESIS OF END PRODUCTS AND INTERMEDIATES FOR THE CHEMICAL, MATERIAL, FUEL, AND ENERGY INDUSTRIES
DEMAND FOR FERMENTATION TECHNOLOGY BY PRODUCT SEGMENT
TABLE 71: GLOBAL MARKET FOR FERMENTATIVE TECHNOLOGY BY PRODUCT SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS)
BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION BY TECHNOLOGY
TABLE 72: GLOBAL MARKET FOR FEEDSTOCK IN BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION, THROUGH 2021 (THOUSAND METRIC TONS)
Bioethanol Production by Type of Malting Technology
Wheat Malting Technology
Barley Malting Technology
TABLE 73: GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION BY MALTING TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS)
Bioethanol Production by Type of Corn Milling Technology
Corn Wet Milling Technology
Corn Dry Milling Technology
TABLE 74: GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION BY TYPE OF CORN MILLING TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS)
Bioethanol Production by Type of Sugar Feedstock Technology
Sugarcane
Sugar Beet
Sorghum
TABLE 75: GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION BY TYPE OF SUGAR FEEDSTOCK TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS)
Bioethanol by Type of Cellulosic Feedstock Technology
Agricultural Residue Technology
Organic Landfill Waste Technology
Algae Technology
Grass Technology
Wood Technology
TABLE 76: GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION BY TYPE OF CELLULOSIC FEEDSTOCK TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS)
Bioethanol Production by Type of Cellulosic Hydrolysis Technology
Biochemical Cellulosic Hydrolysis
Chemical Cellulosic Hydrolysis
TABLE 77: GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION BY TYPE OF CELLULOSIC HYDROLYSIS TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS)
Bioethanol by Type of Dehydration Technology
Azeotropic Distillation Technology
Molecular Sieve Technology
Membrane Technology
TABLE 78: GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOETHANOL BY TYPE OF DEHYDRATION TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS)
FERMENTATIVE BIOGAS PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY
TABLE 79: GLOBAL MARKET FOR FERMENTATIVE BIOGAS PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF ENVIRONMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS)
TABLE 80: MICROBIAL GROUPS INVOLVED IN ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION
Anaerobic Digestion Technology
TABLE 81: ANAEROBIC DIGESTION TECHNOLOGY
Manure Digestion Technology
Wastewater Treatment Technology
TABLE 82: GLOBAL MARKET FOR ANAEROBIC DIGESTION TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF ENVIRONMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS)
Landfill Technology
Anaerobic Technology
Aerobic Technology
TABLE 83: GLOBAL MARKET FOR LANDFILL BIOGAS BY TYPE OF ENVIRONMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS)
Biogas Recovery and Purification Technology
TABLE 84: SULFUR REMOVAL TECHNOLOGY
Amine Purification Technology
Adsorption Technology
Cryogenic Technology
Membrane Technology
Combined Process Technologies
TABLE 85: GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOGAS BY TYPE OF RECOVERY AND PURIFICATION TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS)
FERMENTATION-DERIVED PRODUCTS (EXCLUDING BIOETHANOL)
Crude Antibiotic Technology
Amino Acid Technology
Biocatalytic Technology
Organic Acid Technology
TABLE 86: GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION OF ORGANIC ACID FROM BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS
Xanthan Technology
Vitamin Technology
TABLE 87: GLOBAL MARKET FOR FERMENTATION-DERIVED SPECIALTY/FINE CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS)
DEMAND FOR BIOTRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY BY CATEGORY
TABLE 88: GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOTRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY BY PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS)*
BIOTRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY BY CHEMICAL TYPE
TABLE 89: VALUE-ADDED BIOCHEMICALS POTENTIALLY DERIVED FROM CELLULOSE, HEMICELLULOSE AND LIGNIN (LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS)
Diacids
Levulinic Acid
2, 5-Furan Dicarboxylic Acid (FDCA)
Glucaric Acid
Aspartic Acid
Muconic Acid
Others
TABLE 90: GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOTRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF CHEMICAL, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS)
BIOTRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF ACTIVE PHARMACEUTICAL INGREDIENT
TABLE 91: GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOTRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF ACTIVE PHARMACEUTICAL INGREDIENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS)
BIOTRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF DRUG
First-Generation Biodrug Technology
Second-Generation Biodrug Technology
TABLE 92: GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOTRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF DRUG, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS)
BIOTRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF SPECIALTY/FINE CHEMICAL
Biosurfactants
Bioremediation
Biofertilizers
TABLE 93: GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOTRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF SPECIALTY/FINE CHEMICAL, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS)
BIOTRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF POLYMER
TABLE 94: BIOTRANSFORMATION OF POLYMERS
Polylactic Acid Production from Biomass
FIGURE 7: POLYLACTIC ACID PRODUCTION FROM BIOMASS
Production of 1, 3-Propanediol
FIGURE 8: BIO-BASED ROUTES TO 1, 3-PROPANEDIOL
Polyhydroxyalkanoates
Plastics Directly from Plants
Vinyl Polymers
TABLE 95: GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOTRANSFORMATION OF POLYMERS BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS)
Bio-based Polyethylene (PE)
Bio-based Polypropylene
Bio-based Polyvinyl Chloride
TABLE 96: GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOTRANSFORMATION OF VINYL POLYMER BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS)
BIOFUEL TECHNOLOGY
TABLE 97: BIOFUEL PRODUCTION VIA BIOTRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
Biodiesel Technology
Bioethanol Technology
Biogas Technology
Biobutanol Technology
TABLE 98: GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOTRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF BIOFUEL, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS)
BIOFUEL PRODUCTION BY TYPE OF MICROALGAE POND DESIGN
Open Ponds
Enclosed Ponds
Plate Reactor
TABLE 99: GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOFUEL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF MICROALGAE POND DESIGN, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS)
BIOFUEL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF MICROALGAE MODE OF OPERATION
Continuous Mode
Batch Mode
TABLE 100: GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOTRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF MICROALGAE BY MODE OF OPERATION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS)
BIOFUEL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF MICROALGAE EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY
Solvent-Based Technology
Microwave-Assisted Extraction Technology
Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Technology
Supercritical Extraction Technology
Autoclave Technology
Enzyme-Assisted Extraction Technology
Extraction-Assisted Mechanical Destruction Technology
TABLE 101: GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOFUEL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF MICROALGAE EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS)
 
CHAPTER 6 - DEMAND FOR THE THERMOCHEMICAL PLATFORM
INTRODUCTION
TABLE 102: THERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION FOR POWER, HEAT, CHEMICAL FEEDSTOCKS AND FUEL
DEMAND FOR THE THERMOCHEMICAL PLATFORM BY TYPE OF CONVERSION
TABLE 103: GLOBAL MARKET FOR THERMOCHEMICAL PLATFORM BY TYPE OF CONVERSION, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS)
INDUSTRIAL DIRECT BIOMASS COMBUSTION REACTOR TECHNOLOGY
Fixed-Bed Combustion Technology
Fluidized-Bed Combustion Technology
Pulverized Bed Combustion Technology
Incineration Technology
TABLE 104: GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOMASS INDUSTRIAL DIRECT COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF REACTOR, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS)
BIOMASS GASIFICATION REACTOR TECHNOLOGY
Fixed-Bed Gasification Technology
Fluidized-Bed Gasification Technology
TABLE 105: GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOMASS GASIFICATION BY TYPE OF REACTOR TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS)
PYROLYSIS TECHNOLOGY
TABLE 106: COMMERCIAL AND PRE-COMMERCIAL (?50 TONS PER DAY) BIO-OIL FACILITIES
Conventional Pyrolysis Technology
Fast Pyrolysis Technology
TABLE 107: GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOMASS PYROLYSIS TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS)
HYDROTHERMAL LIQUEFACTION TECHNOLOGY
HTU Technology
High-Pressure (Hydrothermal) Liquefaction Technology
TABLE 108: GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOMASS HYDROTHERMAL LIQUEFACTION TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS)
DEMAND FOR THERMOCHEMICAL PLATFORM BY TYPE OF ENERGY RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY
WASTE-TO-ENERGY
POWER GENERATION
TABLE 109: GLOBAL MARKET FOR THERMOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM BY TYPE OF ENERGY RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS)
 
CHAPTER 7 - DEMAND FOR THE HYBRID PLATFORM
INTRODUCTION
TABLE 110: HYBRID BIOREFINERY PLATFORMS
DEMAND FOR HYBRID TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM BY COMBINATION
SYNGAS FERMENTATION
ZEACHEM PROCESS
AQUEOUS PHASE REFORMING AND THE VIRENT PROCESS
ALCOHOL-TO-JET PROCESS
TABLE 111: GLOBAL MARKET FOR HYBRID TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM BY TYPE OF COMBINATION, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS)
 
CHAPTER 8 - TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS
INTRODUCTION
TABLE 112: METHODS FOR CONVERTING DIFFERENT BIOMASS SOURCES INTO BIOPRODUCTS
TABLE 113: CONVERSION OF BIOMASS TO BIO-BASED PRODUCTS
ADVANCED BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES
TABLE 114: DESCRIPTION OF AN ADVANCED BIOREFINERY PLANT
SIZE RANGE OF ADVANCED BIOREFINERY PLANT
TABLE 115: ADVANCED BIOREFINERY PLANTS BY PLANT SIZE RANGE SORTED BY TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM (NUMBER OF PLANTS)
ADVANCED BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT
TABLE 116: ADVANCED BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT
BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY WITHIN THE GLOBAL ECONOMY
TABLE 117: BIO-DERIVED PRODUCTS WITHIN THE ECONOMY
BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES DEVELOPMENT AND SIGNIFICANCE
TABLE 118: BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES DEVELOPMENT AND SIGNIFICANCE
BIOLOGICAL PLATFORM DEVELOPMENTS
TABLE 119: BIOLOGICAL PLATFORM DEVELOPMENTS (TONS PER YEAR)
CELLULOSIC TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT
TABLE 120: INTEGRATED CELLULOSIC ETHANOL BIOREFINERY
BIOETHANOL FROM WOOD OR STRAW BY ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS AND FERMENTATION PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY
TABLE 121: BIOETHANOL FROM WOOD STRAW BY ACID HYDROLYSIS AND FERMENTATION TECHNOLOGY
MOST PROMISING PRETREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES
Pretreatment
Hydrolysis
TABLE 122: MOST PROMISING PRETREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES BY METHOD OF PRETREATMENT
THERMOCHEMICAL PLATFORM DEVELOPMENTS
TABLE 123: THERMOCHEMICAL PLATFORM DEVELOPMENTS
PHYSICOCHEMICAL PLATFORM DEVELOPMENTS
TABLE 124: PHYSICOCHEMICAL PLATFORM DEVELOPMENTS (TONS PER YEAR)
HYBRID PLATFORM DEVELOPMENTS
TABLE 125: HYBRID PLATFORM DEVELOPMENTS
PATENT EVALUATION AND ANALYSIS
 
CHAPTER 9 - INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND COMPETITIVE ENVIRONMENT
INTRODUCTION
TABLE 126: MAJOR BIOMASS CONVERSION BY TECHNOLOGY
COMPARISON OF BIOREFINERIES TO PETRO-REFINERIES
TABLE 127: PETROREFINERY SUPPLY CHAIN
TECHNOLOGY VALUE CHAIN
TABLE 128: NECESSARY VALUE CHAINS AND CAPITAL INVESTMENTS BY TYPE OF BIOREFINERY
VALUE ADDITION OF BIO-DERIVED PRODUCTS
TABLE 129: ADDED VALUE OF BIO-DERIVED PRODUCTS THROUGH PROCESSING AND STANDARDIZATION
TABLE 130: VALUE ADDITION OF BIO-BASED PRODUCTS
COMMERCIALIZATION OF ADVANCED BIOREFINERIES
TABLE 131: GEOGRAPHICAL COMMERCIALIZATION OF ADVANCED BIOREFINERIES
EUROPEAN UNION HORIZON 2020 ENERGY EFFICIENCY CALL 2016-2017
TABLE 132: HORIZON 2020 ENERGY EFFICIENCY CALL 2015-2016 (? MILLIONS)
TITLE IX OF THE AGRICULTURE ACT OF 2014
TABLE 133: TITLE IX OF THE AGRICULTURE ACT OF 2014, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS)
COMMERCIALIZATION STAGES OF VARIOUS BIOPRODUCTS AND TECHNOLOGIES
TABLE 134: COMMERCIALIZATION STAGE OF BIOPRODUCTS AND TECHNOLOGIES
PATH TO COMMERCIAL DEPLOYMENT OF BIOREFINERIES
TABLE 135: PATH TO COMMERCIAL DEPLOYMENT OF ADVANCED BIOREFINERIES BY COMPANY, 2003-2021
BIOREFINERY PLANT SCALE OF OPERATION
TABLE 136: TYPICAL SCALE OF OPERATION FOR VARIOUS SECOND-GENERATION BIOFUEL PLANTS USING ENERGY CROP-BASED LIGNOCELLULOSIC FEEDSTOCKS
TABLE 137: CAPITAL COSTS AND EFFICIENCIES OF PRINCIPAL BIOELECTRICITY AND COMPETITIVE CONVERSION TECHNOLOGIES
INTEGRATED BIOREFINERY DEMONSTRATION COFUNDED BY THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY
TABLE 138: U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COFUNDED INTEGRATED BIOREFINERIES
 
CHAPTER 10 - INTERNATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS
INTRODUCTION
TABLE 139: GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF BIOREFINERY JOBS
GEOGRAPHIC TRENDS IN BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES
TABLE 140: GEOGRAPHIC TRENDS IN BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY PRODUCTS BY COUNTRY
GLOBAL COMMODITY PRICES
CRUDE OIL
BIOFUELS FEEDSTOCK
NATURAL GAS
LNG
METALS AND MINERALS
TABLE 141: GLOBAL COMMODITY PRICES, THROUGH 2021 (NOMINAL $ U.S.)
GLOBAL POPULATION
UNITED STATES AND CANADA
SOUTH ASIA
SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
OTHER
TABLE 142: GLOBAL POPULATION BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION PEOPLE)
GLOBAL GDP AND R&D SPENDING
TABLE 143: GLOBAL TRENDS IN R&D SPENDING, 2014-2016 ($ BILLIONS)
GLOBAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY FEEDSTOCK
PETROLEUM
NATURAL GAS
COAL
NUCLEAR
HYDROELECTRIC
RENEWABLES
TABLE 144: GLOBAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY FEEDSTOCK, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION METRIC TONNES OF OIL EQUIVALENT)
INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN VEGETABLE OILS BY COUNTRY
PRODUCTION
DOMESTIC CONSUMPTION
IMPORTS
EXPORTS
TABLE 145: GLOBAL SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION OF MAJOR VEGETABLE OILS BY TYPE OF OIL, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION METRIC TONS PER YEAR)
INTERNATIONAL CURRENCY EXCHANGE RATES
TABLE 146: YEARLY AVERAGE EXCHANGE RATES FOR CONVERTING FOREIGN CURRENCIES INTO U.S. DOLLARS*
 
CHAPTER 11 - REGULATIONS AND LEGISLATION
INTRODUCTION
TABLE 147: IMPORTANT UPCOMING ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS BY ACTIVITY
 
CHAPTER 12 - COMPANY PROFILES
BIOLOGICAL TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM COMPANIES
ABENGOA
ALFA AESAR (PART OF JOHNSON MATTHEY GROUP)
ALEXION PHARMACEUTICALS
ALKERMES
ALKOL BIOTECH
ALPHA CHEMIKA
AMGEN
AMYLIN PHARMACEUTICALS
AMYRIS
AMYRIS INC.
ANQING HEXING CHEMICAL CO. LTD.
ARCADIA BIOSCIENCES INC.
ARCHER DANIELS MIDLAND
ARIAD PHARMACEUTICALS
AVANTIUM
BASF SA
BAXTER INTERNATIONAL
BETA RENEWABLES
BIOAMBER INC.
Bioamber Inc.
BIOGEN
BIOGEN IDEC
BIOGASOL
BIOMARIN PHARMACEUTICALS INC.
BP BIOFUELS
BRASKEM
BUTAMAX
CATHAY INDUSTRIAL BIOTECH LTD.
CARGILL
CELGENE
CERES INC.
BLADE SEEDS
CHEMTEX
CHENGDU JINKAI BIOLOGY ENGINEERING CO. LTD.
CHROMATIN INC.
Seed Operations
CELGENE
CLARIENT
CODEXIS INC.
COPERSUCAR SA
CSL BEHRING
DUPONT
EARTH ENERGY RENEWABLES
EVOLVA
FIBERIGHT
GENENTECH
GF BIOCHEMICALS
GILEAD SCIENCES
GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS
DIASSORIN
DR. REDDY'S LABORATORIES
GEVO
ELEVANCE
GADIV PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRIES ISRAEL
GENOME COMPILER CORP.
GILEAD SCIENCES
ITACONIX CORP.
JIANGSU HIGH HOPE INTERNATIONAL GROUP CORP.
Nanjing Huajin Biologicals Co. Ltd.
JINAN HUAMING BIOCHEMISTRY CO. LTD.
KAWASAKI KASEI CHEMICALS LTD.
KEMIN
LUCITE INTERNATIONAL GROUP LTD.
MENDOTA BIOENERGY LLC
MERCK KGAA
MITSUBISHI CHEMICAL JAPAN
MITSUBISHI RAYON
MITSUI & CO. LTD.
MODULAR GENETICS INC.
MYRIANT CORP.
NEXSTEPPE
NIPPON SHOKUBAI CO. LTD.
NOVO NORDISK
ODEBRECHT AGROINDUSTRIAL (ETH)
PACIFIC ETHANOL INC.
POET BIOREFINING
PURAC
QINGDAO ABEL TECHNOLOGY CO. LTD.
QINGDAO KEHAI BIOCHEMISTRY CO. LTD.
RAIZEN NORTH AMERICA INC.
REGENERON
RENEWABLE ENERGY GROUP
REVERDIA (DSM - ROQUETTE)
RENMATRIX INC.
ROQUETTE FRERES SA
ROYAL DSM
RONAS CHEMICALS IND. CO. LTD.
SEATTLE GENETICS
SEVENTH GENERATION
SHIRE PLC
SOLUTIONS4CO2
SOUTHEAST RENEWABLE FUELS LLC
STORA ENSO
SUCCINITY
SYNBIAS LTD.
TEVA PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRIES
TOKYO CHEMICAL INDUSTRY CO. LTD.
UNITED THERAPEUTICS
V & V PHARMA INDUSTRIES
VALERO RENEWABLE FUELS
VERDEZYME
VERTEX PHARMACEUTICALS
WACKER CHEMIE
ZOOSHARE BIOGAS CO-OPERATIVE INC.
ZERO WASTE ENERGY SYSTEMS LTD.
ZHEJIANG KEDAO CHEMICALS CO. LTD.
PHYSICOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM COMPANIES
ABENGOA BIOENERGIA
ALGAE DYNAMICS (FORMERLY CONVERTED CARBON TECHNOLOGIES)
BORREGAARD
CARBONA
CHEMREC
CONOCOPHILLIPS
DIAMOND GREEN DIESEL
DYNAMIC FUELS LLC
EMERALD BIOFUELS
HONEYWELL-UOP
NESTE OIL
POND BIOFUELS
SUN PINE
VIRENT
WILMAR INTERNATIONAL LTD.
THERMOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM COMPANIES
ALTRANEX
AMEC FOSTER WHEELER
CHEMREC
CHOREN
DYNAMOTIVE LTD.
ECN
ENERGY RESEARCH CENTER OF THE NETHERLANDS
ENSYN
EVERGENT
FORTUM
GAS TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE
GOTEBORG ENERGI
GREASOLINE
GREEN FUEL NORDIC OY
LICELLA
RED ARROW
RENTECH
REPOTEC
SUNDROP FUELS
THYSSEN KRUP UHDE
UPM
VARMLANDSMETANOL AB
WOODLAND BIOFUELS
HYBRID TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM COMPANIES
ENERKEM
INEOS BIO
LANZATECH
VIRENT ENERGY SYSTEMS
ZEACHEM
BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATORS
AIR PRODUCTS & CHEMICALS
AKZO NOBEL INC.
ARKEMA
ASAHI KASEI
BASF
BAYER
BOREALIS
CHEVRON PHILLIPS CHEMICAL
DUPONT
EASTMAN CHEMICAL
ECOLAB
EVONIK INDUSTRIES
EXXONMOBIL
FORMOSA PLASTICS CORP.
HANWHA CHEMICAL
HUNTSMAN CORP.
INDORAMA
LANXESS
LOTTE CHEMICAL
LYONDELLBASELL INDUSTRIES
MITSUBISHI CHEMICAL
MITSUI CHEMICALS
MOSAIC
PPG INDUSTRIES
PRAXAIR
PTT GLOBAL CHEMICAL
RELIANCE INDUSTRIES
SASOL
SHELL
SHI-ETSU CHEMICAL
SIAM CEMENT
SK INNOVATION
SOLVAY
SUMITOMO CHEMICAL
SYNGENTA
TORAY INDUSTRIES
TOSOH
YARA
 
LIST OF TABLES
SUMMARY TABLE: GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES BY TYPE OF PLATFORM, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 12
TABLE 1: GENERALIZED BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY CONFIGURATIONS 15
TABLE 2: BIOREFINERY SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION USING CURRENT METHODS 16
TABLE 3: GENERALIZED BIOREFINERY OUTLINE USING CURRENT METHODS 17
TABLE 4: GLOBAL MARKET FOR APPLICATIONS OF BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES BY PRODUCT TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 17
TABLE 5: GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES USED TO PROCESS ENERGY PRODUCTS BY INDUSTRY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 19
TABLE 6: GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES USED TO PROCESS NON-ENERGY PRODUCTS BY INDUSTRY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 20
TABLE 7: GLOBAL BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES MARKET PENETRATION, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 21
TABLE 8: MAJOR BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM ACTIVITIES AND PRODUCTS 22
TABLE 9: ENERGETIC AND NON-ENERGETIC FOREST BIOREFINERY SUPPLY CHAIN 23
TABLE 10: OVERVIEW OF THE BIOMASS VALUE CHAIN CONVERSION PROCESS 25
TABLE 11: LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS VALUE CHAIN CONVERSION PROCESS 26
TABLE 12: PROCESSES USED AND PRODUCTS EXTRACTED FROM PLANTS 27
TABLE 13: OVERVIEW OF INDUSTRIAL AND MATERIAL USE OF BIO-BASED RAW MATERIALS 29
TABLE 14: BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY CONVERSION ROUTES OF PLANT BIOMASS 32
TABLE 15: BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES APPROACHES: MARKET FEATURES AND RELATIVE SUBGROUPS 33
TABLE 16: PRIMARY BIOREFINERY CONVERSION TECHNOLOGIES TO CRUDE PRODUCTS 35
TABLE 17: SECONDARY AND TERTIARY BIOREFINERY TRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES TO PRODUCT 36
TABLE 18: EFFECTIVE H/C RATIO IN RELATION TO THE BIOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM AND ITS INTERMEDIATES 38
TABLE 19: HYDROGEN TO CARBON RATIO STAIRCASE FOR FOSSIL FUEL FEEDSTOCKS 39
TABLE 20: SELECTED EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES AMONG ADVANCED BIOREFINERY COMPANIES 40
TABLE 21: STAFFING AND SALARY PROJECTIONS FOR A PROTOTYPE 10-MILLION-GALLON-PER-YEAR RURAL BIOREFINERY, THROUGH 2020 ($ THOUSANDS) 42
TABLE 22: SELECTED SCIENCE OCCUPATIONS AND MEDIAN ANNUAL WAGES, THROUGH 2021 ($ THOUSANDS) 43
TABLE 23: SELECTED ENGINEERING AND MAPPING OCCUPATIONS AND MEDIAN ANNUAL WAGES, THROUGH 2021 ($ THOUSANDS) 44
TABLE 24: SELECTED CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIAL-MOVING OCCUPATIONS AND MEDIAN ANNUAL WAGES, THROUGH 2021 ($ THOUSANDS) 45
TABLE 25: SELECTED INDUSTRIAL MICROBIOLOGY OCCUPATIONS AND MEDIAN ANNUAL WAGES, THROUGH 2021 ($ THOUSANDS) 47
TABLE 26: SELECTED AGRICULTURE OCCUPATIONS AND MEDIAN ANNUAL WAGES, THROUGH 2021 ($ THOUSANDS) 48
TABLE 27: SELECTED PRODUCTION OCCUPATIONS AND MEDIAN ANNUAL WAGES, THROUGH 2021 ($ THOUSANDS) 48
TABLE 28: SELECTED SALES OCCUPATIONS AND MEDIAN ANNUAL WAGES, THROUGH 2021 ($ THOUSANDS) 49
TABLE 29: SELECTED MANAGEMENT AND BUSINESS SPECIALIST OCCUPATIONS AND MEDIAN ANNUAL WAGES, THROUGH 2021 ($ THOUSANDS) 50
TABLE 30: SELECTED MECHANIC AND MAINTENANCE OCCUPATIONS AND MEDIAN ANNUAL WAGES, THROUGH 2021 ($ THOUSANDS) 50
TABLE 31: RFS2 DATA, CONVENTIONAL BIOFUEL AND ADVANCED BIOFUEL (BILLION GALLONS) 51
TABLE 32: BIOMASS CONVERSION TECHNOLOGY MATURITY STATUS 52
TABLE 33: ANTICIPATED CHEMICAL AND MATERIAL DEVELOPMENT PATHWAY BY KEY FEEDSTOCK 53
TABLE 34: U.S. FEDERAL FUNDING FOR ADVANCED BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES, 2007-2014 ($ MILLIONS) 54
TABLE 35: U.S. FEDERAL AND PUBLIC FUNDING FOR ADVANCED BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES 2015-2016 ($ MILLIONS) 54
TABLE 36: IMPORTANT DEVELOPMENTS IN BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES 55
TABLE 37: REAL GDP AND INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION GROWTH, THROUGH 2021 (% CHANGE ON PREVIOUS YEAR) 60
TABLE 38: GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES BY TYPE OF PLATFORM, THROUGH 2021 (%) 61
TABLE 39: PHYSICOCHEMICAL CONVERSION OF BUILDING-BLOCK CHEMICALS, THEIR DERIVATIVES AND POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS 63
TABLE 40: GLOBAL MARKET FOR THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM BY PRODUCT SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 67
TABLE 41: GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIO-DERIVED FINE CHEMICALS PRODUCED BY PHYSICOCHEMICAL CONVERSION TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 70
TABLE 42: GLOBAL MARKET FOR LIPID CONVERSION BIOPOLYMER/ BIOPLASTIC BUILDING-BLOCK TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 71
TABLE 43: BIOCOMPOSITE TECHNOLOGY VALUE ADDITION 72
TABLE 44: NATURAL FIBER PROCESS TECHNIQUES AND APPLICATIONS 73
TABLE 45: BIOCOMPOSITE PRODUCT STRUCTURE 74
TABLE 46: BIOCOMPOSITE PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY 74
TABLE 47: GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOCOMPOSITE TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 76
TABLE 48: GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOCOMPOSITE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 77
TABLE 49: GLOBAL MARKET FOR VEGETABLE OIL: FUEL TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 77
TABLE 50: GLOBAL MARKET FOR STRAIGHT VEGETABLE OIL: ENGINE TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 78
TABLE 51: CURRENT GLOBAL ANNUAL PRODUCTION CAPACITY OF HVO DROP-IN BIOFUELS 79
TABLE 52: GLOBAL MARKET FOR HYDROGENATED VEGETABLE OIL: FUEL BY TYPE OF ENGINE TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 80
TABLE 53: BIODIESEL BY ESTERIFICATION OF VEGETABLE OIL: PRODUCTION 82
TABLE 54: FLOW CHART OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL 82
TABLE 55: GLOBAL MARKET FOR VEGETABLE OIL: IN BIODIESEL PRODUCTION BY TYPE OF FEEDSTOCK TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2021 (THOUSAND METRIC TONS) 84
TABLE 56: GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIODIESEL BY TYPE OF ESTERIFICATION TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 85
TABLE 57: GLOBAL MARKET FOR PHYSICOCHEMICAL CATALYSIS OF BIODIESEL BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 87
TABLE 58: GLOBAL MARKET FOR HERBAL/BOTANICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 88
TABLE 59: GLOBAL MARKET FOR HERBAL/BOTANICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF PLANT ROOT, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 92
TABLE 60: GLOBAL MARKET FOR HERBAL/BOTANICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF PLANT BARK, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 95
TABLE 61: GLOBAL MARKET FOR HERBAL/BOTANICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF STEM AND WOOD, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 96
TABLE 62: GLOBAL MARKET FOR HERBAL/BOTANICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF PLANT LEAF, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 100
TABLE 63: GLOBAL MARKET FOR HERBAL/BOTANICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF PLANT FLOWER, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 102
TABLE 64: GLOBAL MARKET FOR HERBAL/BOTANICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF PLANT FRUIT AND SEED, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 105
TABLE 65: GLOBAL MARKET FOR HERBAL/BOTANICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF PLANT RHIZOME, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 107
TABLE 66: GLOBAL MARKET FOR HERBAL/BOTANICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF LOWER PLANT, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 109
TABLE 67: GLOBAL MARKET FOR HERBAL/BOTANICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOUNDS BY EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 112
TABLE 68: GLOBAL MARKET FOR THE BIOLOGICAL PLATFORM BY TYPE OF TRANSFORMATION, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 114
TABLE 69: BIOTECHNOLOGY SEGMENTS 115
TABLE 70: BIOLOGICAL CONVERSION FOR CHEMICAL BUILDING BLOCKS, THEIR DERIVATIVES AND THEIR POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS 116
TABLE 71: GLOBAL MARKET FOR FERMENTATIVE TECHNOLOGY BY PRODUCT SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 119
TABLE 72: GLOBAL MARKET FOR FEEDSTOCK IN BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION, THROUGH 2021 (THOUSAND METRIC TONS) 120
TABLE 73: GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION BY MALTING TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 121
TABLE 74: GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION BY TYPE OF CORN MILLING TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 122
TABLE 75: GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION BY TYPE OF SUGAR FEEDSTOCK TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 124
TABLE 76: GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION BY TYPE OF CELLULOSIC FEEDSTOCK TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 125
TABLE 77: GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION BY TYPE OF CELLULOSIC HYDROLYSIS TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 126
TABLE 78: GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOETHANOL BY TYPE OF DEHYDRATION TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 128
TABLE 79: GLOBAL MARKET FOR FERMENTATIVE BIOGAS PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF ENVIRONMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 128
TABLE 80: MICROBIAL GROUPS INVOLVED IN ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION 129
TABLE 81: ANAEROBIC DIGESTION TECHNOLOGY 132
TABLE 82: GLOBAL MARKET FOR ANAEROBIC DIGESTION TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF ENVIRONMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 134
TABLE 83: GLOBAL MARKET FOR LANDFILL BIOGAS BY TYPE OF ENVIRONMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 135
TABLE 84: SULFUR REMOVAL TECHNOLOGY 135
TABLE 85: GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOGAS BY TYPE OF RECOVERY AND PURIFICATION TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 138
TABLE 86: GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION OF ORGANIC ACID FROM BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS 140
TABLE 87: GLOBAL MARKET FOR FERMENTATION-DERIVED SPECIALTY/FINE CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 141
TABLE 88: GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOTRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY BY PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS)* 142
TABLE 89: VALUE-ADDED BIOCHEMICALS POTENTIALLY DERIVED FROM CELLULOSE, HEMICELLULOSE AND LIGNIN (LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS) 143
TABLE 90: GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOTRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF CHEMICAL, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 147
TABLE 91: GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOTRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF ACTIVE PHARMACEUTICAL INGREDIENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 148
TABLE 92: GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOTRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF DRUG, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 149
TABLE 93: GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOTRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF SPECIALTY/FINE CHEMICAL, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 151
TABLE 94: BIOTRANSFORMATION OF POLYMERS 152
TABLE 95 : LOBAL MARKET FOR BIOTRANSFORMATION OF POLYMERS BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 155
TABLE 96 : LOBAL MARKET FOR BIOTRANSFORMATION OF VINYL POLYMER BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 157
TABLE 97 : IOFUEL PRODUCTION VIA BIOTRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 158
TABLE 98 : LOBAL MARKET FOR BIOTRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF BIOFUEL, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 160
TABLE 99 : LOBAL MARKET FOR BIOFUEL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF MICROALGAE POND DESIGN, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 162
TABLE 100: GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOTRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF MICROALGAE BY MODE OF OPERATION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 163
TABLE 101: GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOFUEL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF MICROALGAE EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 165
TABLE 102: THERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION FOR POWER, HEAT, CHEMICAL FEEDSTOCKS AND FUEL 168
TABLE 103: GLOBAL MARKET FOR THERMOCHEMICAL PLATFORM BY TYPE OF CONVERSION, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 169
TABLE 104: GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOMASS INDUSTRIAL DIRECT COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF REACTOR, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 171
TABLE 105: GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOMASS GASIFICATION BY TYPE OF REACTOR TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 172
TABLE 106: COMMERCIAL AND PRE-COMMERCIAL (?50 TONS PER DAY) BIO-OIL FACILITIES 172
TABLE 107: GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOMASS PYROLYSIS TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 174
TABLE 108: GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOMASS HYDROTHERMAL LIQUEFACTION TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 175
TABLE 109: GLOBAL MARKET FOR THERMOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM BY TYPE OF ENERGY RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 177
TABLE 110: HYBRID BIOREFINERY PLATFORMS 179
TABLE 111: GLOBAL MARKET FOR HYBRID TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM BY TYPE OF COMBINATION, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 181
TABLE 112: METHODS FOR CONVERTING DIFFERENT BIOMASS SOURCES INTO BIOPRODUCTS 183
TABLE 113: CONVERSION OF BIOMASS TO BIO-BASED PRODUCTS 184
TABLE 114: DESCRIPTION OF AN ADVANCED BIOREFINERY PLANT 185
TABLE 115: ADVANCED BIOREFINERY PLANTS BY PLANT SIZE RANGE SORTED BY TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM (NUMBER OF PLANTS) 186
TABLE 116: ADVANCED BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT 186
TABLE 117: BIO-DERIVED PRODUCTS WITHIN THE ECONOMY 188
TABLE 118: BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES DEVELOPMENT AND SIGNIFICANCE 189
TABLE 119: BIOLOGICAL PLATFORM DEVELOPMENTS (TONS PER YEAR) 203
TABLE 120: INTEGRATED CELLULOSIC ETHANOL BIOREFINERY 207
TABLE 121: BIOETHANOL FROM WOOD STRAW BY ACID HYDROLYSIS AND FERMENTATION TECHNOLOGY 208
TABLE 122: MOST PROMISING PRETREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES BY METHOD OF PRETREATMENT 209
TABLE 123: THERMOCHEMICAL PLATFORM DEVELOPMENTS 211
TABLE 124: PHYSICOCHEMICAL PLATFORM DEVELOPMENTS (TONS PER YEAR) 214
TABLE 125: HYBRID PLATFORM DEVELOPMENTS 215
TABLE 126: MAJOR BIOMASS CONVERSION BY TECHNOLOGY 218
TABLE 127: PETROREFINERY SUPPLY CHAIN 220
TABLE 128: NECESSARY VALUE CHAINS AND CAPITAL INVESTMENTS BY TYPE OF BIOREFINERY 221
TABLE 129: ADDED VALUE OF BIO-DERIVED PRODUCTS THROUGH PROCESSING AND STANDARDIZATION 222
TABLE 130: VALUE ADDITION OF BIO-BASED PRODUCTS 223
TABLE 131: GEOGRAPHICAL COMMERCIALIZATION OF ADVANCED BIOREFINERIES 224
TABLE 132: HORIZON 2020 ENERGY EFFICIENCY CALL 2015-2016 (? MILLIONS) 224
TABLE 133: TITLE IX OF THE AGRICULTURE ACT OF 2014, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 225
TABLE 134: COMMERCIALIZATION STAGE OF BIOPRODUCTS AND TECHNOLOGIES 226
TABLE 135: PATH TO COMMERCIAL DEPLOYMENT OF ADVANCED BIOREFINERIES BY COMPANY, 2003-2021 228
TABLE 136: TYPICAL SCALE OF OPERATION FOR VARIOUS SECOND-GENERATION BIOFUEL PLANTS USING ENERGY CROP-BASED LIGNOCELLULOSIC FEEDSTOCKS 237
TABLE 137: CAPITAL COSTS AND EFFICIENCIES OF PRINCIPAL BIOELECTRICITY AND COMPETITIVE CONVERSION TECHNOLOGIES 238
TABLE 138: U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COFUNDED INTEGRATED BIOREFINERIES 239
TABLE 139: GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF BIOREFINERY JOBS 241
TABLE 140: GEOGRAPHIC TRENDS IN BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY PRODUCTS BY COUNTRY 243
TABLE 141: GLOBAL COMMODITY PRICES, THROUGH 2021 (NOMINAL $ U.S.) 248
TABLE 142: GLOBAL POPULATION BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION PEOPLE) 250
TABLE 143: GLOBAL TRENDS IN R&D SPENDING, 2014-2016 ($ BILLIONS) 251
TABLE 144: GLOBAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY FEEDSTOCK, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION METRIC TONNES OF OIL EQUIVALENT) 253
TABLE 145: GLOBAL SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION OF MAJOR VEGETABLE OIL: BY TYPE OF OIL, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION METRIC TONS PER YEAR) 255
TABLE 146: YEARLY AVERAGE EXCHANGE RATES FOR CONVERTING FOREIGN CURRENCIES INTO U.S. DOLLARS* 257
TABLE 147: IMPORTANT UPCOMING ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS BY ACTIVITY 260
 
LIST OF FIGURES
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES BY TYPE OF PLATFORM, 2013--2021 ($ BILLIONS) 12
FIGURE 1: VALUE CHAIN OF THE NATURAL INGREDIENT INDUSTRY 28
FIGURE 2: BASIC OLEOCHEMICAL, DOWNSTREAM OLEOCHEMICAL AND DERIVATIVE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY 65
FIGURE 3: TRANSESTERIFICATION AND EPOXIDATION, HYDROFORMYLATION AND METATHESIS REACTIONS 65
FIGURE 4: BASIC OLEOCHEMICAL AND DOWNSTREAM OLEOCHEMICAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY 66
FIGURE 5: CHEMICAL PROCESSES FOR METHYL OR ETHYL ESTER BIODIESEL PRODUCTION AND PRODUCT YIELDS 81
FIGURE 6: BIOTECHNICAL SYNTHESIS OF END PRODUCTS AND INTERMEDIATES FOR THE CHEMICAL, MATERIAL, FUEL, AND ENERGY INDUSTRIES 117
FIGURE 7v POLYLACTIC ACID PRODUCTION FROM BIOMASS 153
FIGURE 8: BIO-BASED ROUTES TO 1, 3-PROPANEDIOL 154

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