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替代性化学产品处理市场研究报告 (2016版)
Alternative Chemical Products and Processing (Version 2016)

替代性化学产品处理市场研究报告 (2016版)
【报告编号】:No.25904
【发布时间】:2016-08
【关 键 字】:化学产品   Chemical Products   
【报告页数】:280页
【报告价格】:电子版:6650美元
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DESCRIPTION
 
REPORT HIGHLIGHTS
 
The alternative U.S chemical end-use product market is expected to increase from $149.9 billion in 2016 to an estimated $345.6 billion by 2021. It should reach $884.1 billion by 2026, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 19.4% for the period of 2016-2026.
 
This report provides:
 
An overview of the global markets for alternative chemical products and processing
Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2014, 2015, and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through 2020
Coverage of processes that are less harmful to humans and the environment, rely on renewable resources, and offer cost efficiency to the manufacturer and customers
Product markets from feedstocks to end-use
Regulatory environments as well governmental impact on the market
Detailed information on manufacturers
Profiles of major players in the industry
SCOPE OF REPORT
 
This timely BCC Research study studies the markets for alternative chemical products, which include biomass feedstocks, biobased chemical intermediate products, and end-use alternative chemical products, along with processing technology. It compares the alternative and traditional chemical markets, highlighting the move away from petrochemicals as a primary feedstock. The international arena, regulatory environment and technology, all of which directly affect opportunities for alternative chemical products, are extensively reviewed. The report includes profiles of major product manufacturers and reviews end-use markets. New technologies and processing developments are extensively discussed. Detailed forecasts and analysis provide vital and comprehensive market information on product sales, cost-savings alternatives and international opportunities.
 
Market forecasts are included for all product categories for U.S. as well as global production. Estimated values used are based on manufacturers' total revenues. The historical and current significance of government regulations, patents and R&D will be reviewed in terms of their vital roles in affecting the market dynamics of the alternative chemical market, with emphasis on future product sales. Information concerning U.S. exports and leading globalized companies will be analyzed. The report covers a broad spectrum of the chemical industry and provides a cohesive picture of the overall alternative chemical product market, with forecasts through 2026.
 
ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS
 
Christopher Maara holds a master's degree in finance and development from University of London's School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), and has worked as an analyst with London-based Business Monitor International (BMI); as a country risk analyst; as a packaging, materials and energy analyst for visiongain Limited; and as an economic and political analyst for Investment & Research. He is also the CEO and Founder of Kiri Energy, and has worked on several small-scale, mini-hydro projects in Kenya. He has been involved in the design and installation of solar mini grids and pico- and mini-hydro turbines.
 
Table of Contents
 
CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION
 
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY
INTENDED AUDIENCE
SCOPE OF REPORT
INFORMATION SOURCES
ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE
DISCLAIMER
 
CHAPTER 2 - SUMMARY
 
SUMMARY TABLE TOTAL U.S. PRODUCTION OF END-USE ALTERNATIVE CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ BILLIONS)
SUMMARY FIGURE A: ALTERNATIVE CHEMICALS AS A PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL CHEMICAL END-USE PRODUCTION, BY TYPE, 2016 (%)
SUMMARY FIGURE B: ALTERNATIVE CHEMICALS AS A PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL CHEMICAL END-USE PRODUCTION, BY TYPE, 2026 (%)
 
CHAPTER 3 - OVERVIEW
 
HISTORY OF THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY
FIGURE 1: CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING FLOW CHART
FROM PLANTS TO FOSSIL FUEL CHEMICALS
GREEN CHEMISTRY BEGINNINGS
THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY
TABLE 1: REPRESENTATIVE CHEMICAL PRODUCT MARKETS ($ BILLIONS)
NEED FOR ALTERNATIVE CHEMICAL PRODUCTS
GREEN CHEMISTRY DEFINED
Environmentally Benign Chemicals
Green Initiatives
12 Principles of Green Chemistry
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
POLLUTION PREVENTION
SUSTAINABILITY ISSUES
DEPENDENCE ON FOSSIL FUELS
WASTE GENERATION AND BYPRODUCTS
FIGURE 2: U.S. PRODUCTION-RELATED WASTE BY INDUSTRIAL SECTOR, 2014* (%)
FIGURE 3: U.S. TOTAL DISPOSAL OR OTHER RELEASES BY SECTOR, 2014* (%)
FIGURE 4: PRODUCTION-RELATED WASTE MANAGED BY U.S. CHEMICAL MANUFACTURERS, 2003-2014 (MILLION POUNDS)
FIGURE 5: U.S. CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY TOTAL WASTE DISPOSAL OR OTHER RELEASES, 2003-2014 (MILLION POUNDS)
FIGURE 6: DUPONT HAZARDOUS WASTE REDUCTION, BY REGION, 1990-2011 (MILLION POUNDS*)
EMISSION STANDARDS
NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCES
OZONE-DEPLETING SUBSTANCES
MAJOR BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS
TABLE 2: U.S. MARKET FOR MAJOR BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 7: U.S. MARKET FOR MAJOR BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE CHEMICALS
TABLE 3: U.S. MARKET FOR BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ BILLIONS)
FIGURE 8: U.S. MARKET FOR BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ BILLIONS)
END-USE PRODUCTS OF ALTERNATIVE CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING
TABLE 4: ALTERNATIVE CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING MARKET, BY END-USE PRODUCT, THROUGH 2026 ($ BILLIONS)
FIGURE 9: ALTERNATIVE CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING MARKET, BY END-USE PRODUCT, 2015-2026 ($ BILLIONS)
ALTERNATIVE CHEMICAL PROCESSES
MANUFACTURERS
SALES OPPORTUNITIES
FORECASTING PRODUCT SALES
 
CHAPTER 4 - PRODUCTS
 
FEEDSTOCKS
DEFINITION OF FEEDSTOCKS USED IN ALTERNATIVE CHEMICAL PRODUCTION
FEEDSTOCK CATEGORIES
TABLE 5: TOTAL U.S. CROP- AND WASTE-BASED FEEDSTOCK PRODUCTION FOR CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 (TONS)
FIGURE 10: TOTAL U.S. CROP- AND WASTE-BASED FEEDSTOCK PRODUCTION FOR CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 (TONS)
TABLE 6: TOTAL U.S. BIOMASS FEEDSTOCK MARKET FOR BIOBASED CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 11: TOTAL U.S. BIOMASS FEEDSTOCK MARKET FOR BIOBASED CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
Crop-Based Feedstocks
TABLE 7: TOTAL U.S. CROP-BASED FEEDSTOCK PRODUCTION FOR CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 (TONS)
FIGURE 12: TOTAL U.S. CROP-BASED FEEDSTOCK PRODUCTION FOR CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 (TONS)
TABLE 8: TOTAL U.S. CROP-BASED FEEDSTOCK MARKET FOR CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 13: TOTAL U.S. CROP-BASED FEEDSTOCK MARKET FOR CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
Soy-Based Feedstocks
Corn
Miscellaneous Grain Crops
Miscellaneous Plant Crops
Sugar Crops
Sucrose
Specialty Sucrose Esters
Perennial Grasses
Woody Crops
Microbial Feedstocks
TABLE 9: TOTAL U.S. MICROBIAL BIOMASS FEEDSTOCK MARKET FOR CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 14: TOTAL U.S. MICROBIAL BIOMASS FEEDSTOCK MARKET FOR CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
Microorganism Biomass Feedstocks
Enzymes
Celluloses and Hydrolyses
Biotechnology Trends
Waste Biomass Feedstocks
TABLE 10: TOTAL U.S. WASTE-BASED FEEDSTOCK PRODUCTION FOR CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 (TONS)
FIGURE 15: TOTAL U.S. WASTE-BASED FEEDSTOCK PRODUCTION FOR CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 (TONS)
TABLE 11: TOTAL U.S. WASTE-BASED FEEDSTOCK MARKET FOR CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 16: TOTAL U.S. WASTE-BASED FEEDSTOCK MARKET FOR CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
Crop Waste
Industrial Waste
Municipal Solid Waste Residues
Wood Residues
Biomass Feedstock Negatives
Future Feedstock Sales
BIOBASED CHEMICAL PRODUCTS
TRADITIONAL CHEMICAL PRODUCTS
Inorganic Chemical Products
Organic Chemical Products
Alternative Chemical Products vs. Petrochemical Products
PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRY
Oil and Gas Prices a Major Factor
Cost of Processing Chemicals
TABLE 12 PROCESSING COSTS FOR PETROCHEMICALS AND BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE CHEMICALS, BY UNIT, 2015 (%)
FIGURE 17 PROCESSING COSTS FOR PETROCHEMICALS AND BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE CHEMICALS, BY UNIT, 2015 (%)
BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE CHEMICAL PRODUCT MARKET
Novel Properties
TABLE 13: TOTAL U.S. MARKET OF BIOBASED CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ BILLIONS)
FIGURE 18: TOTAL U.S. MARKET OF BIOBASED CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ BILLIONS)
TABLE 14: U.S. MARKET OF BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, 2016 ($ BILLIONS, %)
FIGURE 19: U.S. MARKET OF BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, 2016 (%)
Alternative Chemical Use of Biomass Feedstocks
TABLE 15: TOTAL U.S. MARKET OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS FOR PRODUCTION OF ALTERNATIVE CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 20: TOTAL U.S. MARKET OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS FOR PRODUCTION OF ALTERNATIVE CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 16: TOTAL U.S. MARKET OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS FOR PRODUCTION OF ALTERNATIVE CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, 2016 ($ MILLIONS, %)
FIGURE 21: TOTAL U.S. MARKET OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS FOR PRODUCTION OF ALTERNATIVE CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, 2016 (%)
TABLE 17: U.S. MARKET FOR BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE CHEMICAL USE OF CROP-BASED BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 22: U.S. MARKET FOR BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE CHEMICAL USE OF CROP-BASED BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 18: U.S. MARKET FOR WASTE-BASED BIOMASS USED AS FEEDSTOCKS IN BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 23: U.S. MARKET FOR WASTE-BASED BIOMASS USED AS FEEDSTOCKS IN BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 19: U.S. MARKET FOR BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE CHEMICAL USE OF MICROBIAL FEEDSTOCKS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 24: U.S. MARKET FOR BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE CHEMICAL USE OF MICROBIAL FEEDSTOCKS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
Biobased Bulk Alternative Chemical Market
TABLE 20: TOTAL U.S. MARKET OF BIOBASED BULK CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ BILLIONS)
FIGURE 25: TOTAL U.S. MARKET OF BIOBASED BULK CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ BILLIONS)
TABLE 21: U.S. MARKET OF BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE BULK CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, 2016 ($ BILLIONS, %)
FIGURE 26: U.S. MARKET SHARE OF BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE BULK CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, 2016 (%)
Ethanol
Organic Acids
Miscellaneous Solvents
Glycerol
Lactic Acid
Miscellaneous Resins
Other Bulk Chemicals
Feedstocks Used in Alternative Bulk Chemical Production
TABLE 22: BIOBASED BULK USE OF BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 27: BIOBASED BULK USE OF BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 23: PRODUCTION OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCK USED IN ALTERNATIVE BULK CHEMICALS VS. TOTAL BIOBASED FEEDSTOCK PRODUCTION MARKET, BY TYPE, 2016 ($ MILLIONS, %)
FIGURE 28: PRODUCTION OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCK USED IN ALTERNATIVE BULK CHEMICALS VS. TOTAL BIOBASED FEEDSTOCK PRODUCTION MARKET, BY TYPE, 2016 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 24: TOTAL U.S. MARKET OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS FOR PRODUCTION OF ALTERNATIVE BULK CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, 2016 ($ MILLIONS, %)
FIGURE 29: TOTAL U.S. MARKET OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS FOR PRODUCTION OF ALTERNATIVE BULK CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, 2016 (%)
TABLE 25: BIOBASED BULK USE OF CROP-BASED BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 30: BIOBASED BULK USE OF CROP-BASED BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 26: BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE BULK CHEMICAL USE OF WASTE-BASED BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 31: BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE BULK CHEMICAL USE OF WASTE-BASED BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 27: BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE BULK CHEMICAL USE OF MICROBIAL FEEDSTOCKS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 32: BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE BULK CHEMICAL USE OF MICROBIAL FEEDSTOCKS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
Market for Biobased Specialty and Fine Alternative Chemicals
TABLE 28: TOTAL U.S. MARKET OF BIOBASED SPECIALTY/FINE CHEMICALS, BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2026 ($ BILLIONS)
FIGURE 33: TOTAL U.S. MARKET OF BIOBASED SPECIALTY/FINE CHEMICALS, BY APPLICATION, 2015-2026 ($ BILLIONS)
TABLE 29: U.S. MARKET OF BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE SPECIALTY/FINE CHEMICALS, BY APPLICATION, 2016 ($ BILLIONS, %)
FIGURE 34: U.S. MARKET SHARE OF BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE SPECIALTY/FINE CHEMICALS, BY APPLICATION, 2016 (%)
Specialty Fine Chemicals
Agrochemicals
Enzymes
TABLE 30: USE OF BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS IN ALTERNATIVE SPECIALTY/FINE CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 35: USE OF BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS IN ALTERNATIVE SPECIALTY/FINE CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 31: PRODUCTION OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCK USED IN ALTERNATIVE SPECIALTY/FINE CHEMICALS VS. TOTAL BIOBASED FEEDSTOCK PRODUCTION MARKET, BY TYPE, 2016 ($ MILLIONS, %)
FIGURE 36: PRODUCTION OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCK USED IN ALTERNATIVE SPECIALTY/FINE CHEMICALS VS. TOTAL BIOBASED FEEDSTOCK PRODUCTION MARKET, BY TYPE, 2016 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 32: TOTAL U.S. MARKET OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS FOR PRODUCTION OF ALTERNATIVE SPECIALTY/FINE CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, 2016 ($ MILLIONS, %)
FIGURE 37: TOTAL U.S. MARKET SHARE OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS FOR PRODUCTION OF ALTLERNATIVE SPECIALTY/FINE CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, 2016 (%)
TABLE 33: U.S. MARKET FOR CROP-BASED BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS USED IN BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE SPECIALTY/FINE CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 38: U.S. MARKET FOR CROP- BASED BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS USED IN BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE SPECIALTY/FINE CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 34: WASTE-BASED BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS USED IN BIOBASED SPECIALTY/FINE ALTERNATIVE CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 39: WASTE-BASED BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS USED IN BIOBASED SPECIALTY/FINE ALTERNATIVE CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 35: MICROBIAL FEEDSTOCKS USED IN BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE SPECIALTY/FINE CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 40: MICROBIAL FEEDSTOCKS USED IN BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE SPECIALTY/FINE CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
Market for Biobased Polymer Alternative Chemicals
TABLE 36: TOTAL U.S. MARKET OF BIOBASED POLYMERS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 41: TOTAL U.S. MARKET OF BIOBASED POLYMERS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 37: U.S. MARKET OF BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE POLYMERS, BY TYPE, 2016 ($ MILLIONS, %)
FIGURE 42: U.S. MARKET SHARE OF BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE POLYMERS, BY TYPE, 2016 (%)
Polylactic Acid
Polyhydroxyalkanoate
1,3 Propanediol
Starch Polymers
Cellulose Polymer
Other Polymers
Microbial Sources and Polymers
TABLE 38: USE OF BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS IN BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE POLYMERS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 43: USE OF BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS IN BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE POLYMERS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 39: PRODUCTION OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCK FOR ALTERNATIVE POLYMERS VS. TOTAL BIOBASED FEEDSTOCK PRODUCTION MARKET, BY TYPE, 2016 ($ MILLIONS, %)
FIGURE 44: PRODUCTION OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCK FOR ALTERNATIVE POLYMERS VS. TOTAL BIOBASED FEEDSTOCK PRODUCTION MARKET, BY TYPE, 2016 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 40: TOTAL U.S. MARKET OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS FOR USE IN PRODUCTION OF ALTERNATIVE POLYMERS, BY TYPE, 2016 ($ MILLIONS, %)
FIGURE 45: TOTAL U.S. PRODUCTION OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS FOR USE IN PRODUCTION OF ALTERNATIVE POLYMERS, BY TYPE, 2016 (%)
TABLE 41: USE OF CROP-BASED BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS IN BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE POLYMER CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 46: USE OF CROP-BASED BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS IN BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE POLYMER CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 42: USE OF WASTE-BASED BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS IN BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE POLYMER CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 47: USE OF WASTE-BASED BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS IN BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE POLYMER CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 43: USE OF MICROBIAL FEEDBACKS IN BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE POLYMER CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 48: USE OF MICROBIAL FEEDSTOCKS IN BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE POLYMER CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
MARKET BY ALTERNATIVE CHEMICAL END-USE PRODUCTS
SALES FORECASTS FOR ALTERNATIVE CHEMICAL END-USE PRODUCTS
TABLE 44: TOTAL U.S. MARKET OF END-USE ALTERNATIVE CHEMICALS, BY END-USE PRODUCT, THROUGH 2026 ($ BILLIONS)
FIGURE 49: TOTAL U.S. PRODUCTION OF END-USE ALTERNATIVE CHEMICAL PRODUCTS, BY END-USE PRODUCT, 2015-2026 ($ BILLIONS)
TABLE 45: TOTAL CHEMICAL END-USE MARKET BY ALTERNATIVE CHEMICAL END-USE PRODUCT AND END-USE PRODUCT, 2016 AND 2026 ($ BILLIONS, %)
FIGURE 50: ALTERNATIVE CHEMICAL END-USE PRODUCTS' SHARES OF TOTAL MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE END-USE PRODUCTS, BY END-USE PRODUCT, 2016 (%)
FIGURE 51: ALTERNATIVE CHEMICALS END-USE PRODUCTS' SHARES OF TOTAL MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE END-USE PRODUCTS, BY END-USE PRODUCT, 2026 (%)
ALTERNATIVE END-USE PRODUCT CATEGORIES
Alternative Plastics
Biobased and Biodegradable Plastic Technology
Resins, Polyesters and Plastics
Specialty Plastics
TABLE 46: U.S. MARKET FOR BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS USED IN ALTERNATIVE PLASTICS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 52: USE OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS IN ALTERNATIVE PLASTICS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
Alternative Pharmaceutical Products
New Drug Therapies
TABLE 47: USE OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS IN ALTERNATIVE PHARMACEUTICALS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 53: USE OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS IN ALTERNATIVE PHARMACEUTICALS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
Alternative Packaging
TABLE 48: USE OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS IN ALTERNATIVE PACKAGING, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 54: USE OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS IN ALTERNATIVE PACKAGING, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
Alternative Cleaning Products
Vegetable-based Cleaners
TABLE 49: USE OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS IN ALTERNATIVE CLEANERS, IN ALTERNATIVE PACKAGING, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 55: USE OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS IN ALTERNATIVE CLEANERS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
Alternative Personal Care Products
TABLE 50: USE OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS IN ALTERNATIVE PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 56: USE OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS IN ALTERNATIVE PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
Alternative Agrochemicals
Fertilizers
Biodegradable Waste to Compost
TABLE 51 USE OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS IN ALTERNATIVE AGROCHEMICALS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 57 USE OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS IN ALTERNATIVE AGROCHEMICALS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
Alternative Detergents
Alternative Detergent Offerings
TABLE 52: USE OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS IN ALTERNATIVE DETERGENTS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 58: USE OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS IN ALTERNATIVE DETERGENTS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
Alternative Painting and Coatings
TABLE 53: USE OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS IN ALTERNATIVE PAINTS AND COATINGS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 59: USE OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS IN ALTERNATIVE PAINTS AND COATINGS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
Alternative Adhesive Products
TABLE 54: USE OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS IN ALTERNATIVE ADHESIVES, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 60: USE OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS IN ALTERNATIVE ADHESIVES, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
Alternative Lubricants
TABLE 55: USE OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS IN ALTERNATIVE LUBRICANTS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 61: USE OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS IN ALTERNATIVE LUBRICANTS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
Alternative Pigments and Dyes Products
TABLE 56: USE OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS IN ALTERNATIVE PIGMENTS AND DYES, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 62: USE OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS IN ALTERNATIVE PIGMENTS AND DYES, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
Alternative Ink Products
Soy-based Inks
TABLE 57: USE OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS IN ALTERNATIVE INKS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 63: ALTERNATIVE INKS' USE OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS IN ALTERNATIVE INKS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
 
CHAPTER 5 - TECHNOLOGY
 
TABLE 58: TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE TO THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY
POLLUTION PREVENTION AND COST SAVINGS
R&D
MICROBIAL RESEARCH
LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT
CHEMICAL PROCESSES
PROCESS EFFICIENCIES AND PRODUCT STEWARDSHIP
NONTRADITIONAL CHEMICAL PROCESSING
IMPORTANT RESEARCH AREAS
FIGURE 64: FLOW CHART OF A TYPICAL CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING PROCESS
Creating Robust Measurement Techniques
Chemical Pathways
REAGENTS
SOLVENTS
WATER
IONIC LIQUIDS
SUPERCRITICAL FLUIDS
CATALYSTS
FERMENTATION
BIOPROCESSING
Biorefineries
COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN
PRODUCT AND PROCESSES R&D
COMMERCIAL PRODUCT AND PROCESS R&D
Anellotech TCat-8 Development
Novomer Progress on CO2-based Polyol Blends
Genomatica Bio-Butadiene Research Progresses to Pilot Stage
Biorizon Bio-Aromatics Research
DuPont and ADM Biotech FDME and PTF Development
DuPont Biorefinery
Novozymes and Cargill Bio-Acrylic Acid Research
TerraVerdae and PolyFerm
ACADEMIC PRODUCT AND PROCESS R&D
Rice University - Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Research
University of Oregon - Photochemically Degradable Polymers Research
Polytechnic University, N.Y. - Biocatalytic Research
University of California
Iowa State University
Queens University - Biofuels Research
National Science Foundation (NSF) Academic R&D
Boston College - Iron Polymerization Catalysis
University of Minnesota - Center for Sustainable Polymers
Pennsylvania State University - Sustainable Polymeric Materials
University of Toledo - Algal Bio-Chemistry Research
Georgia Institute of Technology - Biocatalysis Research
GOVERNMENT R&D
U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)
Agriculture Research Service (ARS)
ARS: "Development and Utilization of New Oilseed Crops and Products"
ARS: "Valuable Polysaccharide-Based Products from Sugar Beet Pulp and Citrus Peel"
ARS: "Industrial Products from New Crops"
Department of Energy
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy - Biomass Program
Office of Science - Office of Basic Energy Sciences
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
"Value-Added Products from Hemicellulose Utilization in Dry-Mill Ethanol Plants"
"Isosorbide Production"
Oak Ridge National Laboratory - The Plant Genomics Group
PATENTS
PATENTS BY COMPANY
TABLE 59: PATENTS BY COMPANY, THROUGH 2014
PATENT REVIEW
U.S. Patent No. 8,519,058 B2: Crosslinked Polymers Containing Biomass Derived Materials
U.S. Patent No. 9,040,761 B2: Co-Processing of Biomass and Synthetic Polymer Based Materials in a Pyrolysis Conversion Process
U.S. Patent No. 20,130,344,550 A1: Methods of Bioplastic Production
U.S. Patent No. 6,320,077: Lactic Acid Processing; Methods; Arrangements; and Product
U.S. Patent No. 5,656,682: Polymer Composition Comprising Esterified Starch and Esterified Cellulose
U.S. Patent No. 7,217,545: Method for Production of Lactic Acid
U.S. Patent No. 7,294,486: Enzymatic Process for the Synthesis of Organo-fluorine Compounds
U.S. Patent No. 7,247,230: Electrochemical Synthesis and Processing of Conducting Polymers in Supercritical Media
U.S. Patent No. 7,229,804: Biological Systems for Manufacture of Polyhydroxyalkanoate Polymers Containing 4-hydroxyacids
U.S. Patent No. 7,285,523: Enzyme-containing Granule and Detergent Composition
U.S. Patent No. 7,309,805: Method and System to Contact an Ionic Liquid Catalyst with Oxygen to Improve a Chemical Reaction
U.S. Patent No. 7,275,572: Eco Tire
 
CHAPTER 6 - INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND MARKET COMPETITION
 
MARKET DYNAMICS FOR ALTERNATIVE CHEMICAL PRODUCTS
MARKET DRIVERS
Alternative Chemical Costs
Product Prices
Regulations
Environmental Drivers
R&D
TABLE 60: EXPENDITURES FOR ALTERNATIVE CHEMICAL R &D VS. MARKETING, 2015 (%)
GOVERNMENT FUNDING OF R&D
Capital Investment Essential
COMPETITIVE STRATEGIES
Branding
Environmental Image
Chemical Industry Voluntary Programs
Responsible Care
Economies of Scale
Alliances
Production Innovation
COMPANIES
Biotechnology and Life Sciences Industries
Agriculture Industry
Biomass Feedstock Processors Market Share
TABLE 61: BIOMASS FEEDSTOCK PROCESSORS' MARKET SHARES, BY TIER, 2015 ($ MILLIONS, %)
FIGURE 65: BIOMASS FEEDSTOCK PROCESSORS' MARKET SHARES, BY TIER, 2015 (%)
Alternative Chemical Manufacturers' Market Share
TABLE 62: BIOBASED CHEMICAL MANUFACTURERS' MARKET SHARES, BY TIER, 2015 ($ BILLIONS, %)
FIGURE 66: BIOBASED CHEMICAL MANUFACTURERS' MARKET SHARES, BY TIER, 2015 (%)
COMPANY SIZE
SMALL TO MEDIUM-SIZED COMPANIES
Market Obstacles for SMEs
COMPETITION AND COSTS HINDER NEW ENTRANTS
PRESIDENTIAL GREEN CHEMISTRY CHALLENGE AWARDS
TABLE 63: PRESIDENTIAL GREEN CHEMISTRY CHALLENGE AWARD WINNERS, 2013-2015
SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT
GLOBAL COMPETITION
 
CHAPTER 7 - INTERNATIONAL MARKET
 
INTERNATIONAL MARKET DYNAMICS
FOREIGN INVESTMENT
CHALLENGED BY DEVELOPING REGIONS
GLOBALIZATION
SUPPLY AND DEMAND
GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL AWARENESS
A SHIFT TO BIOBASED TECHNOLOGIES AND BIOTECHNOLOGIES
U.S. EXPORTS
TABLE 64: U.S. MARKET OF ALTERNATIVE CHEMICAL END-USE PRODUCTS-EXPORTS/IMPORTS, THROUGH 2026 ($ BILLIONS)
TABLE 65: U.S. MARKET OF ALTERNATIVE PLASTICS-EXPORTS/IMPORTS, THROUGH 2026 ($ BILLIONS)
TABLE 66: U.S. MARKET OF ALTERNATIVE PHARMACEUTICALS - EXPORTS/IMPORTS, THROUGH 2026 ($ BILLIONS)
TABLE 67: U.S. MARKET OF ALTERNATIVE PACKAGING PRODUCTS-EXPORTS/IMPORTS, THROUGH 2026 ($ BILLIONS)
TABLE 68: U.S. MARKET OF ALTERNATIVE CLEANING PRODUCTS-EXPORTS/IMPORTS, THROUGH 2026 ($ BILLIONS)
TABLE 69: U.S. MARKET OF ALTERNATIVE PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS-EXPORTS/IMPORTS, THROUGH 2026 ($ BILLIONS)
TABLE 70: U.S. MARKET OF ALTERNATIVE AGROCHEMICALS - EXPORTS/IMPORTS, THROUGH 2026 ($ BILLIONS)
TABLE 71: U.S. MARKET OF ALTERNATIVE DETERGENTS - EXPORTS/IMPORTS, THROUGH 2026 ($ BILLIONS)
TABLE 72: U.S. MARKET OF ALTERNATIVE PAINTS AND COATINGS - EXPORTS/IMPORTS, THROUGH 2026 ($ BILLIONS)
TABLE 73: U.S. MARKET OF ALTERNATIVE ADHESIVES - EXPORTS/IMPORTS, THROUGH 2026 ($ BILLIONS)
TABLE 74: U.S. MARKET OF ALTERNATIVE LUBRICANTS - EXPORTS/IMPORTS, THROUGH 2026 ($ BILLIONS)
TABLE 75: U.S. MARKET OF ALTERNATIVE PIGMENTS AND DYES - EXPORTS/IMPORTS, THROUGH 2026 ($ BILLIONS)
TABLE 76: U.S. MARKET OF ALTERNATIVE INKS EXPORTS/IMPORTS, THROUGH 2026 ($ BILLIONS)
WORLDWIDE REGIONAL MARKETS
TABLE 77: GLOBAL MARKET OF ALTERNATIVE CHEMICAL END-USE PRODUCTS, BY REGION, THROUGH 2026 ($ BILLIONS)
TABLE 78: GLOBAL MARKET OF ALTERNATIVE CHEMICAL END-USE PRODUCTION, BY REGION, 2016 ($ BILLIONS, %)
FIGURE 67: GLOBAL COMPARISON OF PRODUCTION OF ALTERNATIVE CHEMICAL END-USE PRODUCTION, BY REGION, 2016 (%)
TABLE 79: GLOBAL MARKET OF ALTERNATIVE CHEMICAL END-USE PRODUCTS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ BILLIONS)
WESTERN EUROPE
TABLE 80: CHANGING GLOBAL CHEMICAL RESTRICTIONS
UNITED STATES
TABLE 81: SHAREHOLDERS' OR NGOS' ACTIONS ON UNSAFE CHEMICALS
FIGURE 68: SHAREHOLDER RESOLUTIONS ON HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS, 2006-2015 (NUMBER OF RESOLUTIONS)
FIGURE 69: TOXICS BILLS ADOPTED BY STATES, 2003-2014 (NUMBER OF BILLS)
EASTERN EUROPE
CANADA
LATIN AMERICA
Brazil
Mexico
ASIA-PACIFIC
China
China's Environmental Regulations
Japan
TABLE 82: MAJOR DEVELOPMENTS IN BIOMASS POLICY IN JAPAN, 2002-2012
REST OF THE WORLD
INDUSTRIAL VS. DEVELOPING REGIONS
Industrialized Countries
Advanced Technology
INTERNATIONAL REGULATION AND AGREEMENTS
POLLUTER PAYS
EUROPEAN UNION REGULATION
REACH Program
THE KYOTO PROTOCOL
UNITED NATIONAL GLOBAL COMPACT
COP21: PARIS CLIMATE CHANGE SUMMIT
NAFTA
INTERNATIONAL COMPANIES
INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENTS
Archer Daniels Midland
AkzoNobel and Photanol
AVA Biochem
Avantium and Tereos
BioAmber and DuPont Tate and Lyle Bio Products
Cardia Bioplastics and Stella Films Group
Cargill Acquires OPX Biotechnologies
Corbion Purac
Croda
DuPont Acquires Dyadic International, Inc.
Dow Chemical and DuPont
DuPont Industrial Biosciences and ADM
GFBiochemicals
Ingredion
Mitsui and Avantium
Novozymes and Monsanto
Solazyme Inc. and BASF
FINANCING AND EXPORT ASSISTANCE
EXPORT-IMPORT BANK
EXPORT WORKING CAPITAL PROGRAM
OVERSEAS PRIVATE INVESTMENT CORP.
COMMERCIAL BANKS
 
CHAPTER 8 - REGULATION
 
HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE
STATE AND FEDERAL INTERACTIONS
EPCRA
EPA'S GREEN CHEMISTRY FOCUS
THE CLEAN AIR ACT
FIGURE 70: U.S. AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS, 1970-2014
WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ACT
CLEAN WATER ACT
CLEAN WATER ACT AMENDMENTS
RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND RECOVERY ACT
"CRADLE-TO-GRAVE" CONTROL OF HAZARDOUS WASTE
POLLUTION PREVENTION ACT
OFFICE OF POLLUTION PREVENTION AND TOXICS (OPPT)
TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT
CHEMICAL DATA REPORTING RULE
MICROBIAL PRODUCTS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY; FINAL REGULATIONS UNDER THE TSCA
TSCA INVENTORY NOMENCLATURE AND REPORTING FOR ENZYMES
BIOMASS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ACT OF 2000
NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN REGULATION
S.1447 - SUSTAINABLE CHEMISTRY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ACT OF 2015
H.R.2576 - TSCA MODERNIZATION ACT OF 2015
S.696 - SAFE CHEMICALS ACT OF 2013
 
CHAPTER 9 - COMPANY PROFILES
 
AG PROCESSING INC.
ALTRANEX CORP.
AMYRIS INC.
ANELLOTECH, INC.
ARCHER DANIELS MIDLAND CO. (ADM)
ASHLAND INC.
AVANTIUM TECHNOLOGIES B.V.
BASF SE
BASF CORPORATION
BIOAMBER INC
BIOCHEMTEX S.P.A.
BIOME TECHNOLOGIES PLC
BIORIZON
BUTALCO GMBH
CALYSTA INC.
CARGILL CORP.
CODEXIS INC.
CORBION NV
DOW CHEMICAL CO.
DUPONT
DUPONT TATE & LYLE BIOPRODUCTS (DPTL), LLC
EASTMAN CHEMICAL CO.
ENERKEM INC.
EVOLVA HOLDING S.A.
EVONIK INDUSTRIES AG
GENOMATICA INC.
GFBIOCHEMICALS LTD.
GLYCOS BIOTECHNOLOGIES INC.
INGREDION INC.
IOGEN CORP.
JIANGSU KAOPULE NEW MATERIAL CO., LTD.
KOCH BIOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS, LLC
METABOLIX INC.
MIDWEST GRAIN PRODUCTS INC.
NATUREWORKS LLC
NOVAMONT S.P.A
NOVOMER INC.
PATHWAY BIOLOGIC LLC
PENN A KEM LLC
RELUCEO INC.
SHENZHEN ECOMANN BIOTECHNOLOGY CO., LTD.
SPARTAN CHEMICAL CO., INC.
SYNTHEZYME LLC
TATE & LYLE PLC
TEIJIN FIBERS LTD.
TIANJIN GREEN BIOMATERIALS
TERRAVERDAE BIOWORKS INC.
VERTEC BIOSOLVENTS INC.
 
CHAPTER 10 - APPENDIX I
 
ACRONYMS
 
CHAPTER 11 - APPENDIX II
 
REFERENCES
WORKS CITED
 
LIST OF TABLES
 
SUMMARY TABLE: TOTAL U.S. PRODUCTION OF END-USE ALTERNATIVE CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ BILLIONS)
TABLE 1: REPRESENTATIVE CHEMICAL PRODUCT MARKETS ($ BILLIONS)
TABLE 2: U.S. MARKET FOR MAJOR BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 3: U.S. MARKET FOR BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ BILLIONS)
TABLE 4: ALTERNATIVE CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING MARKET, BY END-USE PRODUCT, THROUGH 2026 ($ BILLIONS)
TABLE 5: TOTAL U.S. CROP- AND WASTE-BASED FEEDSTOCK PRODUCTION FOR CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 (TONS)
TABLE 6: TOTAL U.S. BIOMASS FEEDSTOCK MARKET FOR BIOBASED CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 7: TOTAL U.S. CROP-BASED FEEDSTOCK PRODUCTION FOR CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 (TONS)
TABLE 8: TOTAL U.S. CROP-BASED FEEDSTOCK MARKET FOR CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 9: TOTAL U.S. MICROBIAL BIOMASS FEEDSTOCK MARKET FOR CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 10: TOTAL U.S. WASTE-BASED FEEDSTOCK PRODUCTION FOR CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 (TONS)
TABLE 11: TOTAL U.S. WASTE-BASED FEEDSTOCK MARKET FOR CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 12: PROCESSING COSTS FOR PETROCHEMICALS AND BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE CHEMICALS, BY UNIT, 2015 (%)
TABLE 13: TOTAL U.S. MARKET OF BIOBASED CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ BILLIONS)
TABLE 14: U.S. MARKET OF BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, 2016 ($ BILLIONS, %)
TABLE 15: TOTAL U.S. MARKET OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS FOR PRODUCTION OF ALTERNATIVE CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 16: TOTAL U.S. MARKET OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS FOR PRODUCTION OF ALTERNATIVE CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, 2016 ($ MILLIONS, %)
TABLE 17: U.S. MARKET FOR BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE CHEMICAL USE OF CROP-BASED BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 18: U.S. MARKET FOR WASTE-BASED BIOMASS USED AS FEEDSTOCKS IN BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 19: U.S. MARKET FOR BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE CHEMICAL USE OF MICROBIAL FEEDSTOCKS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 20: TOTAL U.S. MARKET OF BIOBASED BULK CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ BILLIONS)
TABLE 21: U.S. MARKET OF BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE BULK CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, 2016 ($ BILLIONS, %)
TABLE 22: BIOBASED BULK USE OF BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 23: PRODUCTION OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCK USED IN ALTERNATIVE BULK CHEMICALS VS. TOTAL BIOBASED FEEDSTOCK PRODUCTION MARKET, BY TYPE, 2016 ($ MILLIONS, %)
TABLE 24: TOTAL U.S. MARKET OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS FOR PRODUCTION OF ALTERNATIVE BULK CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, 2016 ($ MILLIONS, %)
TABLE 25: BIOBASED BULK USE OF CROP-BASED BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 26: BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE BULK CHEMICAL USE OF WASTE-BASED BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 27: BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE BULK CHEMICAL USE OF MICROBIAL FEEDSTOCKS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 28: TOTAL U.S. MARKET OF BIOBASED SPECIALTY/FINE CHEMICALS, BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2026 ($ BILLIONS)
TABLE 29: U.S. MARKET OF BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE SPECIALTY/FINE CHEMICALS, BY APPLICATION, 2016 ($ BILLIONS, %)
TABLE 30: USE OF BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS IN ALTERNATIVE SPECIALTY/FINE CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 31: PRODUCTION OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCK USED IN ALTERNATIVE SPECIALTY/FINE CHEMICALS VS. TOTAL BIOBASED FEEDSTOCK PRODUCTION MARKET, BY TYPE, 2016 ($ MILLIONS, %)
TABLE 32: TOTAL U.S. MARKET OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS FOR PRODUCTION OF ALTERNATIVE SPECIALTY/FINE CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, 2016 ($ MILLIONS, %)
TABLE 33: U.S. MARKET FOR CROP-BASED BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS USED IN BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE SPECIALTY/FINE CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 34: WASTE-BASED BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS USED IN BIOBASED SPECIALTY/FINE ALTERNATIVE CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 35: MICROBIAL FEEDSTOCKS USED IN BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE SPECIALTY/FINE CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 36: TOTAL U.S. MARKET OF BIOBASED POLYMERS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 37: U.S. MARKET OF BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE POLYMERS, BY TYPE, 2016 ($ MILLIONS, %)
TABLE 38: USE OF BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS IN BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE POLYMERS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 39: PRODUCTION OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCK FOR ALTERNATIVE POLYMERS VS. TOTAL BIOBASED FEEDSTOCK PRODUCTION MARKET, BY TYPE, 2016 ($ MILLIONS, %)
TABLE 40: TOTAL U.S. MARKET OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS FOR USE IN PRODUCTION OF ALTERNATIVE POLYMERS, BY TYPE, 2016 ($ MILLIONS, %)
TABLE 41: USE OF CROP-BASED BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS IN BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE POLYMER CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 42: USE OF WASTE-BASED BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS IN BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE POLYMER CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 43: USE OF MICROBIAL FEEDBACKS IN BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE POLYMER CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 44: TOTAL U.S. MARKET OF END-USE ALTERNATIVE CHEMICALS, BY END-USE PRODUCT, THROUGH 2026 ($ BILLIONS)
TABLE 45: TOTAL CHEMICAL END-USE MARKET BY ALTERNATIVE CHEMICAL END-USE PRODUCT AND END-USE PRODUCT, 2016 AND 2026 ($ BILLIONS, %)
TABLE 46: U.S. MARKET FOR BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS USED IN ALTERNATIVE PLASTICS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 47: USE OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS IN ALTERNATIVE PHARMACEUTICALS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 48: USE OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS IN ALTERNATIVE PACKAGING, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 49: USE OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS IN ALTERNATIVE CLEANERS, IN ALTERNATIVE PACKAGING, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 50: USE OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS IN ALTERNATIVE PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 51: USE OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS IN ALTERNATIVE AGROCHEMICALS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 52: USE OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS IN ALTERNATIVE DETERGENTS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 53: USE OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS IN ALTERNATIVE PAINTS AND COATINGS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 54: USE OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS IN ALTERNATIVE ADHESIVES, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 55: USE OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS IN ALTERNATIVE LUBRICANTS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 56: USE OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS IN ALTERNATIVE PIGMENTS AND DYES, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 57: USE OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS IN ALTERNATIVE INKS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 58: TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE TO THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY
TABLE 59: PATENTS BY COMPANY, THROUGH 2014
TABLE 60: EXPENDITURES FOR ALTERNATIVE CHEMICAL R &D VS. MARKETING, 2015 (%)
TABLE 61: BIOMASS FEEDSTOCK PROCESSORS' MARKET SHARES, BY TIER, 2015 ($ MILLIONS, %)
TABLE 62: BIOBASED CHEMICAL MANUFACTURERS' MARKET SHARES, BY TIER, 2015 ($ BILLIONS, %)
TABLE 63: PRESIDENTIAL GREEN CHEMISTRY CHALLENGE AWARD WINNERS, 2013-2015
TABLE 64: U.S. MARKET OF ALTERNATIVE CHEMICAL END-USE PRODUCTS-EXPORTS/IMPORTS, THROUGH 2026 ($ BILLIONS)
TABLE 65: U.S. MARKET OF ALTERNATIVE PLASTICS-EXPORTS/IMPORTS, THROUGH 2026 ($ BILLIONS)
TABLE 66: U.S. MARKET OF ALTERNATIVE PHARMACEUTICALS - EXPORTS/IMPORTS, THROUGH 2026 ($ BILLIONS)
TABLE 67: U.S. MARKET OF ALTERNATIVE PACKAGING PRODUCTS-EXPORTS/IMPORTS, THROUGH 2026 ($ BILLIONS)
TABLE 68: U.S. MARKET OF ALTERNATIVE CLEANING PRODUCTS-EXPORTS/IMPORTS, THROUGH 2026 ($ BILLIONS)
TABLE 69: U.S. MARKET OF ALTERNATIVE PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS-EXPORTS/IMPORTS, THROUGH 2026 ($ BILLIONS)
TABLE 70: U.S. MARKET OF ALTERNATIVE AGROCHEMICALS - EXPORTS/IMPORTS, THROUGH 2026 ($ BILLIONS)
TABLE 71: U.S. MARKET OF ALTERNATIVE DETERGENTS - EXPORTS/IMPORTS, THROUGH 2026 ($ BILLIONS)
TABLE 72: U.S. MARKET OF ALTERNATIVE PAINTS AND COATINGS - EXPORTS/IMPORTS, THROUGH 2026 ($ BILLIONS)
TABLE 73: U.S. MARKET OF ALTERNATIVE ADHESIVES - EXPORTS/IMPORTS, THROUGH 2026 ($ BILLIONS)
TABLE 74: U.S. MARKET OF ALTERNATIVE LUBRICANTS - EXPORTS/IMPORTS, THROUGH 2026 ($ BILLIONS)
TABLE 75: U.S. MARKET OF ALTERNATIVE PIGMENTS AND DYES - EXPORTS/IMPORTS, THROUGH 2026 ($ BILLIONS)
TABLE 76: U.S. MARKET OF ALTERNATIVE INKS EXPORTS/IMPORTS, THROUGH 2026 ($ BILLIONS)
TABLE 77: GLOBAL MARKET OF ALTERNATIVE CHEMICAL END-USE PRODUCTS, BY REGION, THROUGH 2026 ($ BILLIONS)
TABLE 78: GLOBAL MARKET OF ALTERNATIVE CHEMICAL END-USE PRODUCTION, BY REGION, 2016 ($ BILLIONS, %)
TABLE 79: GLOBAL MARKET OF ALTERNATIVE CHEMICAL END-USE PRODUCTS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2026 ($ BILLIONS)
TABLE 80: CHANGING GLOBAL CHEMICAL RESTRICTIONS
TABLE 81: SHAREHOLDERS' OR NGOS' ACTIONS ON UNSAFE CHEMICALS
TABLE 82: MAJOR DEVELOPMENTS IN BIOMASS POLICY IN JAPAN, 2002-2012
 
LIST OF FIGURES
 
SUMMARY FIGURE A: ALTERNATIVE CHEMICALS AS A PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL CHEMICAL END-USE PRODUCTION, BY TYPE, 2016 (%)
SUMMARY FIGURE B: ALTERNATIVE CHEMICALS AS A PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL CHEMICAL END-USE PRODUCTION, BY TYPE, 2026 (%)
FIGURE 1: CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING FLOW CHART
FIGURE 2: U.S. PRODUCTION-RELATED WASTE BY INDUSTRIAL SECTOR, 2014* (%)
FIGURE 3: U.S. TOTAL DISPOSAL OR OTHER RELEASES BY SECTOR, 2014* (%)
FIGURE 4: PRODUCTION-RELATED WASTE MANAGED BY U.S. CHEMICAL MANUFACTURERS, 2003-2014 (MILLION POUNDS)
FIGURE 5: U.S. CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY TOTAL WASTE DISPOSAL OR OTHER RELEASES, 2003-2014 (MILLION POUNDS)
FIGURE 6: DUPONT HAZARDOUS WASTE REDUCTION, BY REGION, 1990-2011 (MILLION POUNDS*)
FIGURE 7: U.S. MARKET FOR MAJOR BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 8: U.S. MARKET FOR BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ BILLIONS)
FIGURE 9: ALTERNATIVE CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING MARKET, BY END-USE PRODUCT, 2015-2026 ($ BILLIONS)
FIGURE 10: TOTAL U.S. CROP- AND WASTE-BASED FEEDSTOCK PRODUCTION FOR CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 (TONS)
FIGURE 11: TOTAL U.S. BIOMASS FEEDSTOCK MARKET FOR BIOBASED CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 12: TOTAL U.S. CROP-BASED FEEDSTOCK PRODUCTION FOR CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 (TONS)
FIGURE 13: TOTAL U.S. CROP-BASED FEEDSTOCK MARKET FOR CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 14: TOTAL U.S. MICROBIAL BIOMASS FEEDSTOCK MARKET FOR CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 15: TOTAL U.S. WASTE-BASED FEEDSTOCK PRODUCTION FOR CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 (TONS)
FIGURE 16: TOTAL U.S. WASTE-BASED FEEDSTOCK MARKET FOR CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 17: PROCESSING COSTS FOR PETROCHEMICALS AND BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE CHEMICALS, BY UNIT, 2015 (%)
FIGURE 18: TOTAL U.S. MARKET OF BIOBASED CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ BILLIONS)
FIGURE 19: U.S. MARKET OF BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, 2016 (%)
FIGURE 20: TOTAL U.S. MARKET OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS FOR PRODUCTION OF ALTERNATIVE CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 21: TOTAL U.S. MARKET OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS FOR PRODUCTION OF ALTERNATIVE CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, 2016 (%)
FIGURE 22: U.S. MARKET FOR BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE CHEMICAL USE OF CROP-BASED BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 23: U.S. MARKET FOR WASTE-BASED BIOMASS USED AS FEEDSTOCKS IN BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 24: U.S. MARKET FOR BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE CHEMICAL USE OF MICROBIAL FEEDSTOCKS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 25: TOTAL U.S. MARKET OF BIOBASED BULK CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ BILLIONS)
FIGURE 26: U.S. MARKET SHARE OF BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE BULK CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, 2016 (%)
FIGURE 27: BIOBASED BULK USE OF BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 28: PRODUCTION OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCK USED IN ALTERNATIVE BULK CHEMICALS VS. TOTAL BIOBASED FEEDSTOCK PRODUCTION MARKET, BY TYPE, 2016 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 29: TOTAL U.S. MARKET OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS FOR PRODUCTION OF ALTERNATIVE BULK CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, 2016 (%)
FIGURE 30: BIOBASED BULK USE OF CROP-BASED BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 31: BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE BULK CHEMICAL USE OF WASTE-BASED BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 32: BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE BULK CHEMICAL USE OF MICROBIAL FEEDSTOCKS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 33: TOTAL U.S. MARKET OF BIOBASED SPECIALTY/FINE CHEMICALS, BY APPLICATION, 2015-2026 ($ BILLIONS)
FIGURE 34: U.S. MARKET SHARE OF BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE SPECIALTY/FINE CHEMICALS, BY APPLICATION, 2016 (%)
FIGURE 35: USE OF BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS IN ALTERNATIVE SPECIALTY/FINE CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 36: PRODUCTION OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCK USED IN ALTERNATIVE SPECIALTY/FINE CHEMICALS VS. TOTAL BIOBASED FEEDSTOCK PRODUCTION MARKET, BY TYPE, 2016 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 37: TOTAL U.S. MARKET SHARE OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS FOR PRODUCTION OF ALTLERNATIVE SPECIALTY/FINE CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, 2016 (%)
FIGURE 38: U.S. MARKET FOR CROP- BASED BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS USED IN BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE SPECIALTY/FINE CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 39: WASTE-BASED BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS USED IN BIOBASED SPECIALTY/FINE ALTERNATIVE CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 40: MICROBIAL FEEDSTOCKS USED IN BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE SPECIALTY/FINE CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 41: TOTAL U.S. MARKET OF BIOBASED POLYMERS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 42: U.S. MARKET SHARE OF BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE POLYMERS, BY TYPE, 2016 (%)
FIGURE 43: USE OF BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS IN BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE POLYMERS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 44: PRODUCTION OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCK FOR ALTERNATIVE POLYMERS VS. TOTAL BIOBASED FEEDSTOCK PRODUCTION MARKET, BY TYPE, 2016 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 45: TOTAL U.S. PRODUCTION OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS FOR USE IN PRODUCTION OF ALTERNATIVE POLYMERS, BY TYPE, 2016 (%)
FIGURE 46: USE OF CROP-BASED BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS IN BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE POLYMER CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 47: USE OF WASTE-BASED BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS IN BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE POLYMER CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 48: USE OF MICROBIAL FEEDSTOCKS IN BIOBASED ALTERNATIVE POLYMER CHEMICALS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 49: TOTAL U.S. PRODUCTION OF END-USE ALTERNATIVE CHEMICAL PRODUCTS, BY END-USE PRODUCT, 2015-2026 ($ BILLIONS)
FIGURE 50: ALTERNATIVE CHEMICAL END-USE PRODUCTS' SHARES OF TOTAL MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE END-USE PRODUCTS, BY END-USE PRODUCT, 2016 (%)
FIGURE 51: ALTERNATIVE CHEMICALS END-USE PRODUCTS' SHARES OF TOTAL MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE END-USE PRODUCTS, BY END-USE PRODUCT, 2026 (%)
FIGURE 52: USE OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS IN ALTERNATIVE PLASTICS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 53: USE OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS IN ALTERNATIVE PHARMACEUTICALS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 54: USE OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS IN ALTERNATIVE PACKAGING, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 55: USE OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS IN ALTERNATIVE CLEANERS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 56: USE OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS IN ALTERNATIVE PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 57: USE OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS IN ALTERNATIVE AGROCHEMICALS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 58: USE OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS IN ALTERNATIVE DETERGENTS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 59: USE OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS IN ALTERNATIVE PAINTS AND COATINGS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 60: USE OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS IN ALTERNATIVE ADHESIVES, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 61: USE OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS IN ALTERNATIVE LUBRICANTS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 62: USE OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS IN ALTERNATIVE PIGMENTS AND DYES, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 63: ALTERNATIVE INKS' USE OF BIOBASED FEEDSTOCKS IN ALTERNATIVE INKS, BY TYPE, 2015-2026 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 64: FLOW CHART OF A TYPICAL CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING PROCESS
FIGURE 65: BIOMASS FEEDSTOCK PROCESSORS' MARKET SHARES, BY TIER, 2015 (%)
FIGURE 66: BIOBASED CHEMICAL MANUFACTURERS' MARKET SHARES, BY TIER, 2015 (%)
FIGURE 67: GLOBAL COMPARISON OF PRODUCTION OF ALTERNATIVE CHEMICAL END-USE PRODUCTION, BY REGION, 2016 (%)
FIGURE 68: SHAREHOLDER RESOLUTIONS ON HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS, 2006-2015 (NUMBER OF RESOLUTIONS)
FIGURE 69: TOXICS BILLS ADOPTED BY STATES, 2003-2014 (NUMBER OF BILLS)
FIGURE 70: U.S. AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS, 1970-2014

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